Adenocarcinoma Lung Breast Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What is the prognosis for adenocarcinoma with bone cancer?
    I hope someone can help.

    Recently a close friend of mine who had beaten breast cancer(she had been cancer free for 5 years) was diagnosed with cancer of the outer lung and bone cancer.
    The doctors are telling her that they will be doing chemotherapy once a month only. There is another treatment (hormonal) that they want to try, but they're worried because she has not finished menopause.
    Can anyone tell me what the prognosis is when you have both of these cancers?

    • ANSWER:
      I dont want to alarm you. But my mother had breast cancer and it spread into her bones after being told 4 years earlier that she was cancer free. After her dignosis in May of 2003, sadly it took intill Dec of 2004 to kill her. She was only 49. They tried everything from chemo to radiation. They even had her on a hormone pill but the cancer had just spread so much. I am really sorry about your friend my heart goes out to her. I would find out what stage she is in. My mother was in stage four so there was really not much they could do. Through the treatments they provided it did prolong her life for a year and half after given a timeline of 6 months. And again I am truly sorry about your friend.

  2. QUESTION:
    What is the chance someone will survive secondary bone cancer?
    A friend found out she has bone cancer but docs cant find the primary cancer source
    A friend who is in her early 50's found out she has seconday bone cancer. Her docs cant find the primary source of cancer and theyve ruled out breast cancer. Her platelet count has been very low and shes had to have 2 blood transfusions. She is in alot of pain and is weak. She is also very pale. She goes sometime next week to see what her options are. Im very worried about her.

    • ANSWER:
      Most types of carcinoma metastatic to bone are not considered curable.
      Breast cancer is a good bet (depending on the person's age) in a situation where the primary cannot be identified and the bone lesions are biopsy proven adenocarcinoma. These people may respond with oral hormonal therapy with or without chemotherapy. The key would then be to control the disease with medication and possibly some focal radiation therapy if needed for symptomatic control.

      Are you certain this is a malignancy? Is there a confirmed biopsy showing carcinoma? We are greatly hampered by such limited information here. We don't even know the woman's age.

      If this is an adenocarcinoma, the primary could be a breast cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, lung cancer, or less likely a GYN malignancy or a GI malignancy. When all testing fails to show the primary, I always treated for the BEST type it could possibly be.

      All this testing and searching for the cancer cell type just tells us what is likely to help most. Sometimes you have to guess and try different treatments until you find what works for that one special patient - AND - each person/patient is special. It sounds crude when so much of medicine is scientific these days, but there is still some art to the practice of medicine - and experience counts.

  3. QUESTION:
    One of my dogs breasts in larger than the others?
    For about the last year I have noticed one of my small unspayed female dogs breasts is larger than her others, it feels normal she has no health problems and it is not tender. People I've asked say oh that's just her muscle do you think it's anything to worry about? She is 5 years old

    • ANSWER:
      I would never leave a lump uninvestigated. You just never know.
      Take your dog to the vet asap.

      Mammary tumors are the most common tumors in female dogs who have not been spayed. Mammary tumors can be small, simple nodules or large, aggressive growths. With early detection and prompt treatment, even some of the more serious tumors can be successfully treated.

      Mammary tumors are more common in unspayed, middle-aged female dogs (those between 5 and 10 years of age), although they can, on rare occasions, be found in dogs as young as 2 years. These tumors are rare in dogs that were spayed under 2 years of age. Occasionally, mammary tumors will develop in male dogs and these are usually very aggressive and have a poor outcome.

      There are multiple types of mammary tumors in dogs. Approximately one-half of all mammary tumors in dogs are benign and half malignant. Mammary tumors should be properly diagnosed by a biopsy and histopathology to determine which treatment is to be used for that particular type of tumor.

      The common benign form of canine mammary tumors is actually a mixture of several different types of cells. This combination cancer in the dog is called a 'benign mixed mammary tumor' and contains glandular and connective tissue. Other benign tumors include complex adenomas, fibroadenomas, duct papillomas, and simple adenomas.

      Malignant mammary tumors can be: tubular adenocarcinomas, solid carcinomas, anaplastic carcinomas, osteosarcomas, fibrosarcomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, papillary cystic adenocarcinomas, and malignant mixed tumors.

      When tumors first appear they will feel like small pieces of pea gravel just under the skin. They are very hard and are difficult to move around under the skin. They can grow rapidly in a short period of time, doubling their size every month or so.

      Benign growths are often smooth, small and slow growing.
      Signs of malignant tumors include rapid growth, irregular shape, firm attachment to the skin or underlying tissue, bleeding, and ulceration.

      A biopsy or complete tumor removal and testing are almost always needed to determine if the tumor is benign or malignant, and to identify what type it is.
      Tumors, which are more aggressive and may spread to the surrounding lymph nodes or to the lungs. A chest x-ray and physical inspection of the lymph nodes will help in confirming this.

      Mammary cancer spreads to the rest of the body through the release of individual cancer cells from the various tumors into the lymphatics. Mammary glands in specific areas pertaining to the tumor drain and spread their tumor cells forward to axillary lymph nodes, new tumors form at these sites and then release more cells that go to other organs such as the lungs, liver, or kidneys.

      Upon finding any mass within the breast of a dog, surgical removal is recommended unless the patient is very old. If a surgery is done early in the course of this disease, the cancer can be totally eliminated in over 50% of the cases having a malignant form of cancer.
      With some tumor types, especially sarcomas, complete removal is very difficult and many of these cases will have tumor regrowth at the site of the previously removed tumor.
      Chemotherapy has not been a very successful nor a widely used treatment for mammary tumors in dogs.

  4. QUESTION:
    What are the odds of cure after breast cancer for somebody who just?
    lost one of her breasts under surgery and is currently taking chemiothrapy ?

    • ANSWER:
      There are more and more reports by establishment oncologists doubting the value of chemotherapy, even to the point of rejecting it outright. One of these, cancer biostatistician Dr. Ulrich Abel, of Heidelberg, Germany, issued a monograph titled Chemotherapy of Advanced Epithelial Cancer in 1990. Epithelial cancers comprise the most common forms of adenocarcinoma: lung, breast, prostate, colon, etc. After ten years as a statistician in clinical oncology, Abel became increasingly uneasy. "A sober and unprejudiced analysis of the literature," he wrote, "has rarely revealed any therapeutic success by the regimens in question in treating advanced epithelial cancer." While chemotherapy is being used more and more extensively, more than a million people die worldwide of these cancers annually - and a majority have received some form of chemotherapy before dying. Abel further concluded, after polling hundreds of cancer doctors, "The personal view of many oncologists seems to be in striking contrast to communications intended for the public." Abel cited studies that have shown "that many oncologists would not take chemotherapy themselves if they had cancer." (The Cancer Chronicles, December, 1990.)
      "Even though toxic drugs often do effect a response, such as a partial or complete shrinkage of the tumor, this reduction does not prolong expected survival," Abel finds. "Sometimes, in fact, the cancer returns more aggressively than before, since the chemo fosters the growth of resistant cell lines." Besides, the chemo has severely damaged the body's own defenses, the immune system and often the kidneys as well as the liver.
      In an especially dramatic table, Dr. Abel displays the results of chemotherapy in patients with various types of cancers, as the improvement of survival rates, compared to untreated patients. This table shows:
      -In colorectal cancer: no evidence survival is improved.
      -Gastric cancer: no clear evidence.
      -Pancreatic cancer: Study completely negative. Longer survival in control (untreated) group.
      -Bladder: no clinical trial done.
      -Breast cancer: No direct evidence that chemotherapy prolongs survival; its use is "ethically questionable."
      -Ovarian cancer: no direct evidence.
      -Cervix and uterus: No improved survival.
      -Head and neck: no survival benefit but occasional shrinkage of tumors.

      I strongly urge you to look for an answer besides artificial drugs, surgery and radiation. Here are some books I have read from cover to cover, that are now helping me to survive way beyond my doctors' grim predictions--

      "The Cure for All Cancers"
      "A Cancer Therapy"
      "Oxygen Therapies"
      "Hydrogen Peroxide--Medical Miracle"
      "The Natural Cure for Cancer--Germanium"
      "Killing Cancer"
      "Natural Cures 'They' Don't Want You to Know About"

      There are many other good books about surviving this disease, and you should know about this option, even if you choose to go the traditional route with it's abysmal prognosis.

      And watch this--you'll be glad you did.
      http://www.altcancer.com/video/hoxsey_ds...

      Best of luck.

  5. QUESTION:
    Has anybody been cured of cancer by using herbal and natural remedies?
    Serious answers only. Personal testimonies please. I am searching for natural products that have a proven track record in curing cancer. What has worked for you? What kind of cancer did you have? How long have you been using the natural remedies? How long have you been cancer free? Thank you so much!

    • ANSWER:
      Dr. Hulda Clark has an herbal cure that she proves has a 95% CURE rate for even advanced cancers. She has written several books on the subject, and the FDA hasn't been able to get her books off the market, because she PROVED it legally. I think it is criminally negligent that our press isn't all over this development.

      You can get a used copy of, "The Cure for All Advanced Cancers" by looking around on the Internet. I have been trying her approach on myself with modest success--because I am having a problem getting some of the items she specifies--and have bought several of her books, and am now reading them.

      Also, check this out--http://www.altcancer.com/video/hoxsey_ds...

      Treating oneself for an AMA-defined disease is against the law, so you won't get many people to go public on this for fear of reprisal. I just try to spread the word of valid options. Watch the video. Best of luck.

      There are more and more reports by establishment oncologists doubting the value of chemotherapy, even to the point of rejecting it outright. One of these, cancer biostatistician Dr. Ulrich Abel, of Heidelberg, Germany, issued a monograph titled Chemotherapy of Advanced Epithelial Cancer in 1990. Epithelial cancers comprise the most common forms of adenocarcinoma: lung, breast, prostate, colon, etc. After ten years as a statistician in clinical oncology, Abel became increasingly uneasy. "A sober and unprejudiced analysis of the literature," he wrote, "has rarely revealed any therapeutic success by the regimens in question in treating advanced epithelial cancer." While chemotherapy is being used more and more extensively, more than a million people die worldwide of these cancers annually - and a majority have received some form of chemotherapy before dying. Abel further concluded, after polling hundreds of cancer doctors, "The personal view of many oncologists seems to be in striking contrast to communications intended for the public." Abel cited studies that have shown "that many oncologists would not take chemotherapy themselves if they had cancer." (The Cancer Chronicles, December, 1990.)
      "Even though toxic drugs often do effect a response, such as a partial or complete shrinkage of the tumor, this reduction does not prolong expected survival," Abel finds. "Sometimes, in fact, the cancer returns more aggressively than before, since the chemo fosters the growth of resistant cell lines." Besides, the chemo has severely damaged the body's own defenses, the immune system and often the kidneys as well as the liver.
      In an especially dramatic table, Dr. Abel displays the results of chemotherapy in patients with various types of cancers, as the improvement of survival rates, compared to untreated patients.

      This table shows:

      -In colorectal cancer: No evidence survival is improved.
      -Gastric cancer: No clear evidence.
      -Pancreatic cancer: Study completely negative. Longer survival in control (untreated) group.
      -Bladder: No clinical trial done.
      -Breast cancer: No direct evidence that chemotherapy prolongs survival; its use is "ethically questionable."
      -Ovarian cancer: No direct evidence.
      -Cervix and uterus: No improved survival.
      -Head and neck: No survival benefit but occasional shrinkage of tumors.

  6. QUESTION:
    How does one know which adenocarcinoma they have contracted?
    What are the markers for the different types?

    • ANSWER:
      adenocarcinoma means cancer arising in glandular tissue or a gland. It would be typed by the affected organ, gland or body location.

      Examples would be:
      adenocaricnoma of the lung
      adenocaricnoma of the stomach
      adenocaricnoma of the breast
      adenocaricnoma of the pancreas
      and numerous others

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenocarcinoma

      http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/help/default.asp?page=1453

  7. QUESTION:
    What is the most common type of cancer to get?
    ThiS is for homework.

    • ANSWER:
      It's estimated that more than 11 million people in the United States have some form of cancer. There are more than 200 different types of cancer, although many are quite rare. The following are the 10 most commonly diagnosed cancer types in 2009 and the estimated number of cancer patients affected by each:

      Non-melanoma skin cancer. Affecting more than 1 million people a year, skin cancer can form in the skin cells on any part of the body, though most commonly on skin that’s been exposed to the sun. There are several types of skin cancers, including squamous cell skin cancer, found in the flat cells on the top of the skin, and basal cell skin cancer, found in the round cells deeper inside skin's outer layer. Most commonly, skin cancer affects older people or people who have a compromised immune system.
      Lung cancer. Roughly 219,440 cases of this deadly cancer were diagnosed in 2009. Lung cancer strikes the cells inside the lining of the lungs. There are two primary types of lung cancer — small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer claims nearly 160,000 lives annually.
      Breast cancer. This type of cancer will affect 194,280 people in 2009. This is by far the most common cancer in women, says Len Lichtenfeld, MD, deputy chief medical officer for the American Cancer Society. While the overwhelming majority of breast cancer patients are women, about 1,900 cases are diagnosed in men each year.
      Prostate cancer. Just over 192,200 cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed annually. Dr. Lichtenfeld says that this is the most common cancer to affect men, most often men over age 50. The prostate gland is a part of the reproductive system in men and is found at the base of the bladder, near the rectum. This type of cancer develops in the tissues inside the prostate gland.
      Colorectal cancer. There will be about 146,970 new cases of colon and rectal cancers combined in 2010. The colon is part of the large intestine, which helps to break down and digest food, and the rectum is the end of the large intestine that is nearest the anus.
      Bladder cancer. Nearly 71,000 people will receive this diagnosis in 2010. The bladder can be affected by cancer cells that develop within its tissues. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma, but others, such as adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, may also occur, depending on which bladder cells are involved.
      Melanoma. Predicted to strike close to 68,720 people, melanoma is another type of skin cancer. It forms in the skin's melanocyte cells, which produce the brown pigment melanin. Because melanoma occurs in skin that contains a lot of pigment, it frequently begins in moles. Melanoma may also be found in other pigmented parts of the body, like the intestines or even the eyes.
      Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Affecting 65,980 people, this is the term for a number of different but related cancers involving white blood cells, or lymphocytes. This type of cancer is frequently characterized by swollen lymph nodes, fevers, and weight loss. People of any age can develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affect different cells and parts of the body, with varying prognoses and treatment.
      Kidney cancer. Kidney cancer is diagnosed in more than 49,000 people each year. The kidneys are the organs that help to excrete waste from the body in the form of urine. Cancer can form inside the tissues or ducts of the kidneys. Although kidney cancer develops mainly in people over 40, one type of kidney tumor usually affects young children.
      Leukemia. Approximately 44,790 cases of leukemia were predicted for 2009. The four main types of leukemia are acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia. These types of cancer often form inside the bone marrow or other cells and tissues that form blood cells, and are known as blood cancers. Leukemia results in overproduction of certain kinds of white blood cells, which then circulate in the bloodstream. Leukemia can be chronic — a slow-growing type of cancer that begins without symptoms — or acute, meaning the cells can't function normally and symptoms progress rapidly. It affects both adults and children, and kills more children under age 20 than any other cancer.

  8. QUESTION:
    How does a smoker die from "lung cancer"?-what are the "symptoms"?
    How do they know they have it? how long do they live for? (do they cough themself to death? die in their sleep? or...?)

    • ANSWER:
      Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a disease in which the cells of the lung tissues grow uncontrollably and form tumors.

      Description

      There are two kinds of lung cancers, primary and secondary. Primary lung cancer starts in the lung itself, and is divided into small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancers are shaped like an oat and called oat-cell cancers; they are aggressive, spread rapidly, and represent 20% of lung cancers. Non-small cell lung cancer represents almost 80% of all primary lung cancers. Secondary lung cancer is cancer that starts somewhere else in the body (for example, the breast or colon) and spreads to the lungs.

      The lungs

      The lungs are located along with the heart in the chest cavity. The lungs are not simply hollow balloons but have a very organized structure consisting of hollow tubes, blood vessels and elastic tissue. The hollow tubes, called bronchi, are highly branched, becoming smaller and more numerous at each branching. They end in tiny, blind sacs made of elastic tissue called alveoli. These sacs are where the oxygen a person breathes in is taken up into the blood, and where carbon dioxide moves out of the blood to be breathed out.

      Normal healthy lungs are continually secreting mucus that not only keeps the lungs moist, but also protects the lungs by trapping foreign particles like dust and dirt in breathed air. The inside of the lungs is covered with small hairlike structures called cilia. The cilia move in such a way that mucus is swept up out of the lungs and into the throat.

      Lung cancer

      Most lung cancers start in the cells that line the bronchi, and can take years to develop. As they grow larger they prevent the lungs from functioning normally. The tumor can reduce the capacity of the lungs, or block the movement of air through the bronchi in the lungs. As a result, less oxygen gets into the blood and patients feel short of breath. Tumors may also block the normal movement of mucus up into the throat. As a result, mucus builds up in the lungs and infection may develop behind the tumor. Once lung cancer has developed it frequently spreads to other parts of the body.

      The speed at which non-small cell tumors grow depends on the type of cells that make up the tumor. The following three types account for the vast majority of non-small cell tumors:

      Adenocarcinomas are the most common and often cause no symptoms. Frequently they are not found until they are advanced.

      Squamous cell carcinomas usually produce symptoms because they are centrally located and block the lungs.

      Undifferentiated large cell and giant cell carcinomas tend to grow rapidly, and spread quickly to other parts of the body.

      Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer in males, and the fifth most common cancer in women. The worldwide mortality rate for patients with lung cancer is 86%. In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer among both men and women. The World Health Organization estimates that the worldwide mortality from lung cancer will increase to three million by the year 2025. Of those three million deaths, almost two and a half million will result from non-small cell lung cancer.

      The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that 173,770 Americans will develop lung cancer in 2004, 93,110 men and 80,660 women. Of these patients, 160,440 will die of the disease.

      The incidence of lung cancer is beginning to fall in developed countries. This may be a result of antismoking campaigns. In developing countries, however, rates continue to rise, which may be a consequence of both industrialization and the increasing use of tobacco products.

      Causes and symptoms

      Causes

      Tobacco smoking accounts for 87% of all lung cancers. Giving up tobacco can prevent most lung cancers. Smoking marijuana cigarettes is considered another risk factor for cancer of the lung. Second hand smoke also contributes to the development of lung cancer among nonsmokers.

      Certain hazardous materials that people may be exposed to in their jobs have been shown to cause lung cancer. These include asbestos, coal products, and radioactive substances. Air pollution may also be a contributing factor. Exposure to radon, a colorless, odorless gas that sometimes accumulates in the basement of homes, may cause lung cancer in a tiny minority of patients. In addition, patients whose lungs are scarred from other lung conditions may have an increased risk of developing lung cancer.

      Symptoms

      Lung cancers tend to spread very early, and only 15% are detected in their early stages. The chances of early detection, however, can be improved by seeking medical care at once if any of the following symptoms appear:

      a cough that does not go away

      chest pain

      shortness of breath

      recurrent lung infections, such as bronchitis or pneumonia

      bloody or brown-colored spit or phlegm (sputum)

      persistent hoarseness

      significant weight loss that is not due to dieting or vigorous exercise; fatigue and loss of appetite

      unexplained fever

      Although these symptoms may be caused by diseases other than lung cancer, it is important to consult a doctor to rule out the possibility of lung cancer.

      If lung cancer has spread to other organs, the patient may have other symptoms such as headaches, bone fractures, pain, bleeding, or blood clots.

      Diagnosis

      Physical examination and diagnostic tests

      The doctor will first take a detailed medical history and assess risk factors. During a complete physical examination the doctor will examine the patient's throat to rule out other possible causes of hoarseness or coughing, and will listen to the patient's breathing and chest sounds.

      If the doctor has reason to suspect lung cancer, particularly if the patient has a history of heavy smoking or occupational exposure to irritating substances, a chest x ray may be ordered to see if there are any masses in the lungs. Special imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may provide more precise information about the size, shape, and location of any tumors.

      Sputum analysis

      Sputum analysis is a noninvasive test that involves microscopic examination of cells that are coughed up from the lungs. This test can diagnose at least 30% of lung cancers, even if tumors are not visible on chest x rays. In addition, the test can detect cancer in its very early stages, before it spreads to other regions. The sputum test does not provide any information about the location of the tumor.

  9. QUESTION:
    What is sarcoma Cancer and what are its cures and what does it mean when found in Colon?

    • ANSWER:
      Oh boy... this is a big question. Sit back. Relax. Here's a big answer.

      In general, the term "cancer" is applied to any sort of new growth of bodily tissue that has lost the normal pattern and function of the tissue from which it grew, that has a growth pattern that tends to infiltrate and insinuate into the normal tissue around it, and that has the tendency to break loose from it's point of origin microscopically and crop up in distant sites.

      The technical term for "breaking loose" and "cropping up" in distant sites is METASTASIS. The technical term for the infiltrative/insinuating growth pattern is INVASION.

      Tumors which do not invade or metastasize are referred to as "benign". Tumors which invade and metastasize are referred to as "malignant". These are cancers.

      Cancerous tumors are categorized by tissue type. The broadest categorization refers back to how the body grows starting at the embryonic stage. At the earliest stages of development, the human body has only a few layers of cells. There is an outer layer called ectoderm, an inner layer called endoderm, and in between these two is a layer called mesoderm. The ectoderm becomes skin and related structures, along with the nervous system and a variety of hormone secreting organs. The endoderm becomes the gut. Mesoderm becomes everything else, like muscle and bone and fat and blood vessels and a number of other organ structures that aren't directly connected to the gut, brain or skin.

      When any of the tissues that started off as mesoderm turn cancerous, the tumor is called a "sarcoma".

      Sarcomas are comparatively rare cancers. They're not nearly as common as colon cancer or breast cancer or lung cancer. When these cancers occur, they're called "carcinoma" instead of sarcoma, because they come from ectoderm or endoderm. Carcinomas of the skin or gut are much more common because the skin and the gut are undergoing frequent cell divisions. It is during cell division that something can go wrong called "mutation" that can lead down the path toward cancer. Rapidly turning-over tissue is much more likely to accidently turn into cancer than tissue which slowly replaces itself.

      There are several places where sarcoma is more common than elsewhere. Cancerous bone tumors are much more rare than cancerous tumors of soft tissue such as muscle or fat. All of those would be considered sarcoma. Sarcomas can also occur in the fatty tissue that surrounds the kidneys, behind the intestines. These tumors are referred to as "retroperitoneal sarcomas" and they can become quite large before they're discovered.

      When you say that the sarcoma is found in the colon, it actually introduces some confusion. Cancers of the lining of the colon are not sarcoma. These are adenocarcinoma and this is a very common type of cancer. If that's the situation, then most of the rest of this post is actually off topic. If you check and you find that this is actually a colon cancer that we're talking about, please feel free to email me through Yahoo! Answers for clarification.

      However, it is also possible to have a retroperitoneal sarcoma that is stuck to the colon from the outside. That would actually be very normal for a sarcoma in that location.

      Another possibility is something called a GIST. "GIST" stands for Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor. GIST is a type of sarcoma, but it arises in the walls of the stomach or intestine. It has only recently been defined as a specific type of tumor, and it's treated slighly differently from other sarcomas.

      In any case of sarcoma, the first thing that needs to be determined is whether or not it can be removed surgically. Medicines will not strongly affect sarcoma. In general, the best chance to cure a patient of sarcoma is to do aggressive surgery. The tumor and any areas of invasion or metastasis should be surgically excised. These can be very big operations and if so, they are best done by surgeons who have some specialization in cancer surgery. Any organs or tissues that appear to be stuck to the tumor need to be removed along with it, or else disease will be left behind. If the colon is stuck to the tumor, then the section of colon which is attached needs to come out, too.

      Following surgery, the tumor can be examined microscopically. The pathologist will look at the tumor and make an assessment of how "aggressive" it is. This is called the tumor's "grade". A high grade sarcoma is likely to come back even after aggressive surgery. In some cases radiation or chemotherapy is an important additional therapy to help reduce the likelihood of recurrence and increase the length of disease free survival.

      GIST is a very special type of sarcoma because we now have a medicine that does a very good job of supressing it's growth. Once surgical removal is complete, the remainder of microscopic GIST disease can be controlled with a medication known as "Gleevec".

      The most important piece of information regarding the future behavior of a sarcoma is it's grade. Therefore it needs to be biopsied or removed for a pathologist to evaluate it before anyone can make educated guesses about it's future.

      I hope that helps. Feel free to contact me if I can be of any further assistance in interpreting information.

  10. QUESTION:
    Where does Sarcoma cancer usually grow and progress?
    And yes, I know that there are many types of sarcoma

    • ANSWER:
      There are three different categories for cancer: carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and sarcoma. Carcinoma is cancer that arises from endodermal or ectodermal cells (basically, epithelial and endothelial cells). Some examples of carcinomas are lung cancer, skin cancer and stomach cancer. Adenocarcinomas arise from glands within epithelial tissues, like ductal carcinoma in the breast. Sarcoma can occur in any mesoderm tissues, such as the muscles, bones and blood. Some examples of sarcomas are leukemia and lymphoma.

  11. QUESTION:
    does anyone know how to answer this question?
    In adults, over 90% of all cancers are either adenomas (adenocarcinomas)) or carcinomas, including cancers of the skin, lung, colon, breast, and prostate. Which one of the four basic tissue types gives rise to most cancers? Give two reasons why this tissue is more likely to produce cancerous cells.

    • ANSWER:
      I personally do not know how to answer the question, but I can tell you if you contact an Oncologist they will be able to.

      Better yet find someone who is considered an Expert in Cancer Research, if they don't know the answer then obviously the answer has not been found yet!

  12. QUESTION:
    What effect does cancer have on the testes, the prostate and also the cervix?

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer
      Definition

      Cancer is not just one disease, but a large group of almost one hundred diseases. Its two main characteristics are uncontrolled growth of the cells in the human body and the ability of these cells to migrate from the original site and spread to distant sites. If the spread is not controlled, cancer can result in death.

      Description

      One out of every four deaths in the United States is from cancer. It is second only to heart disease as a cause of death in the states. About 1.2 million Americans are diagnosed with cancer annually; more than 500,000 die of cancer annually.

      Cancer can attack anyone. Since the occurrence of cancer increases as individuals age, most of the cases are seen in adults, middle-aged or older. Sixty percent of all cancers are diagnosed in people who are older than 65 years of age. The most common cancers are skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer (in women), and prostate cancer (in men). In addition, cancer of the kidneys, ovaries, uterus, pancreas, bladder, rectum, and blood and lymph node cancer (leukemias and lymphomas) are also included among the 12 major cancers that affect most Americans.

      Cancer, by definition, is a disease of the genes. A gene is a small part of DNA, which is the master molecule of the cell. Genes make "proteins," which are the ultimate workhorses of the cells. It is these proteins that allow our bodies to carry out all the many processes that permit us to breathe, think, move, etc.

      Throughout people's lives, the cells in their bodies are growing, dividing, and replacing themselves. Many genes produce proteins that are involved in controlling the processes of cell growth and division. An alteration (mutation) to the DNA molecule can disrupt the genes and produce faulty proteins. This causes the cell to become abnormal and lose its restraints on growth. The abnormal cell begins to divide uncontrollably and eventually forms a new growth known as a "tumor" or neoplasm (medical term for cancer meaning "new growth").

      In a healthy individual, the immune system can recognize the neoplastic cells and destroy them before they get a chance to divide. However, some mutant cells may escape immune detection and survive to become tumors or cancers.

      Tumors are of two types, benign or malignant. A benign tumor is not considered cancer. It is slow growing, does not spread or invade surrounding tissue, and once it is removed, it doesn't usually recur. A malignant tumor, on the other hand, is cancer. It invades surrounding tissue and spreads to other parts of the body. If the cancer cells have spread to the surrounding tissues, then, even after the malignant tumor is removed, it generally recurs.

      A majority of cancers are caused by changes in the cell's DNA because of damage due to the environment. Environmental factors that are responsible for causing the initial mutation in the DNA are called carcinogens, and there are many types.

      There are some cancers that have a genetic basis. In other words, an individual could inherit faulty DNA from his parents, which could predispose him to getting cancer. While there is scientific evidence that both factors (environmental and genetic) play a role, less than 10% of all cancers are purely hereditary. Cancers that are known to have a hereditary link are breast cancer, colon cancer, ovarian cancer, and uterine cancer. Besides genes, certain physiological traits could be inherited and could contribute to cancers. For example, inheriting fair skin makes a person more likely to develop skin cancer, but only if they also have prolonged exposure to intensive sunlight.

      There are several different types of cancers:

      Carcinomas are cancers that arise in the epithelium (the layers of cells covering the body's surface and lining the internal organs and various glands). Ninety percent of human cancers fall into this category. Carcinomas can be subdivided into two types: adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are cancers that develop in an organ or a gland, while squamous cell carcinomas refer to cancers that originate in the skin.
      Melanomas also originate in the skin, usually in the pigment cells (melanocytes).
      Sarcomas are cancers of the supporting tissues of the body, such as bone, muscle and blood vessels.
      Cancers of the blood and lymph glands are called leukemias and lymphomas respectively.
      Gliomas are cancers of the nerve tissue.

  13. QUESTION:
    What are the end stage symptoms of bladder cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      There are several types of bladder cancers, including the following:

      * transitional cell carcinoma
      Transitional cell carcinoma is cancer that begins in the cells lining the bladder. Transitional cells also line the other parts of the urinary tract including the kidneys, ureters, and urethra. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common kind of bladder cancer, occurring in about 90 percent of cases. This type of cancer is also called urothelial carcinoma.

      * squamous cell carcinoma
      Squamous cell carcinoma is cancer that begins in squamous cells - thin, flat cells found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts. About 6 to 8 percent of bladder cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.

      * adenocarcinoma
      Adenocarcinoma is cancer that begins in the cells of glandular structures lining certain organs in the body and then spreads to the bladder. Common primary sites for adenocarcinomas include the lung, pancreas, breast, prostate, stomach, liver, and colon. Adenocarcinomas account for only about 2 percent of bladder cancers.

      The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) provides guidelines for staging of bladder cancer. The stages range from Stage 0 to Stage IV and have detailed criteria for tumor size, invasiveness, presence in lymph nodes, and whether or not the cancer has metastasized (spread) to other organs. A general description of each stage of bladder cancer follows:

      * Stage 0 - cancer cells are found only on the inner lining of the bladder. This is also called superficial cancer or carcinoma in situ.

      * Stage I - cancer cells are found deep in the lining of the bladder, but have not invaded the bladder muscle.

      * Stage II - cancer cells are present in the muscle of the bladder.

      * Stage III - cancer cells have spread through the bladder muscle into the tissues around the bladder, such as the prostate in men or the uterus in women.

      * Stage IV - cancer has progressed further into the abdominal cavity, and may have spread to lymph nodes and other organs in the body.

      The most common symptoms of bladder cancer include:

      * Blood or blood clots in the urine (hematuria). Hematuria occurs in 80% to 90% of people who have bladder cancer and is the most common symptom. Usually it is not painful. 1
      * Pain during urination (dysuria).
      * Urinating small amounts frequently.
      * Frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs).

      Symptoms that may indicate more advanced bladder cancer include:

      * Pain in the lower back around the kidneys (flank pain).
      * Swelling in the lower legs.
      * A growth in the pelvis near the bladder (pelvic mass).

      Other symptoms that may develop when bladder cancer has spread include:

      * Weight loss.
      * Bone pain or pain in the rectal, anal, or pelvic area.
      * Anemia.

  14. QUESTION:
    Why are carcinomas more common than other forms of cancer?
    Explain.

    • ANSWER:
      An invasive malignant tumour that arises from epithelial cells, which line the internal and external surfaces of the body. Carcinomas are most commonly found in the lining of body organs, such as the breast, prostate, lung, stomach, or bowel. Most human cancers are carcinomas. One of the four major types of cancer. In medicine, carcinoma is malignant by definition: carcinomas invade surrounding tissues and organs, and may spread to lymph nodes and distal sites (metastasis). Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a pre-malignant condition, in which cytological signs of malignancy are present, but there is no histological evidence of invasion through the epithelial basement membrane. Carcinoma, like all neoplasia, is classified by its histopathological appearance. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, two common descriptive terms for tumours, reflect the fact that these cells may have glandular or squamous cell appearances respectively. Severely anaplastic tumours might be so undifferentiated that they do not have a distinct histological appearance (undifferentiated carcinoma). Sometimes a tumour is referred to by the presumptive organ of the primary (eg carcinoma of the prostate) or the putative cell of origin (hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma).
      Hope this helps
      Matador 89

  15. QUESTION:
    I need some medical answers for my book. Some about cancer and general surgery.?
    I can't seem to find out how doctors actually find cancer. Like say someone has no clue they have cancer. No one is aware of any cancer. And this person goes for a check up. How would the doctors notice it? What medical procedure shows tumors?
    Also, someone who has been diagnosed and cured or whatever, what is it like? Do you feel different? What did they do to help you? What kind did you have?
    This is a lot of info, so just answer what you can. It needs to be accurate!
    Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      unfortunately most cases of cancer are diagnosed in their final stages.for example lung adenocarcinoma is asymtomatic because it occur in the peripheral part of the lung.thats why there is a campain avbout breast cancer because if it is diagnosed in its early stages it can be cured.one famous person who is know to have recovered from testicular cancer is Lance Amstrong.one symptom that is common to most cancers is rapid weight loss.it is often the symtom that hints about cancer.pulmonary cancers are very difficult to detect in early stages.when there is bronchopulmonary tumors then the patient might suffer from atelectasia or emphysema.and these are shown as irregular shape of the thorax and asyncronous(one rib goes up on respiration the other one does not go that up) expansion and relaxation of the rib cage.
      as i said eralier it is very difficult to detect cancer or tumors.tumors of the gastointestinal tract are a bit easier as the cause obstruction or bleeding.but then it has the same symtoms as other gastrointestinal problems (e.g ulcers).tumour markers are used to investigate the presence of a tumour
      cancer can be ROUGHLY classified in 3 stages.
      the last stage is when metastasis occers it means when the cancer cell distribute all over the body.
      about surgery...if there is no metastasis yet then the surgeon will remove the tumour.in most cases the patient undergoes radiotherapy to reduce th tumour size as it is much easier to operate with a smaller tumour.
      ihope i get 10 points :)

  16. QUESTION:
    How was metadherin identified? How can it be used to treat cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Dr. Darren M. Brown and Dr. Erkki Ruoslahti from The Burnham Institute in La Jolla, California used in vivo phage screening of cDNA from metastatic breast carcinoma to identify tumor cell surface molecules that mediate breast cancer metastasis.

      The authors isolated a protein they called metadherin (for metastasis adhesion protein) that caused the phage to home specifically to lung microvasculature after intravenous injection in mice.

      Seventeen of 31 human breast adenocarcinomas stained positive for antibodies to metadherin, the report indicates, but 18 of 20 normal human breast tissue samples stained negative for metadherin.

      When co-injected with breast cancer cells, anti-metadherin antibody or metadherin siRNA inhibited lung metastasis by 40% and 80%, respectively, the researchers note.

      Testing patients' tumors for "combinations of new markers, such as metadherin, may make it possible for the physician to better determine how likely a given tumor is to spread," Dr. Ruoslahti told Reuters Health. "The aggressiveness of the therapy can then be adjusted accordingly."

      "The use of metadherin testing in predicting the aggressiveness of a [breast] cancer may be relatively quick to introduce into the clinic," Dr. Ruoslahti said. "As far as therapeutic applications, it is hard to tell. There is a lot of basic research to be done."

      "As metadherin is greatly overexpressed in breast cancer, we hope to show that targeting metadherin with antibodies, or other by other means, can reduce tumor growth in animals," Dr. Ruoslahti concluded. "If positive, such results could open up new treatment possibilities."

  17. QUESTION:
    how to differentiate between malignant and begin in term histology features?

    helps me to differentiate between malignant and benign carcinoma in term of histologic features..

    • ANSWER:
      Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers, particularly in the aged, and include nearly all those developing in the breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and colon

      Frequent organ sites of carcinoma:

      Lung: Carcinoma comprises >98% of all lung cancers.
      Breast: Nearly all breast cancers are ductal carcinoma.
      Prostate: The most common form of carcinoma of the prostate is adenocarcinoma.
      Colon and rectum: Nearly all malignancies of the colon and rectum are either adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
      Pancreas: Pancreatic carcinoma is almost always of the adenocarcinoma type and is highly lethal.
      Some carcinomas are named for their or the putative cell of origin, (e.g.(hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma.

      The term "benign" refers to a condition, tumor, or growth that is NOT cancerous. This means that it does not spread to other parts of the body and it does not change or destroy nearby tissue.

      In general, a benign tumor grows slowly and is not harmful. However, this is not always the case.

      A benign tumor may grow big enough or be found near blood vessels, the brain, nerves, or organs. As a result, it can cause problems without spreading to another part of the body.

      The opposite of benign is malignant.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benign_tumor

      .The term "malignancy" refers to cancerous cells that have the ability to spread to other sites in the body (metastasize) or to invade and destroy tissues. Malignant cells tend to have fast, uncontrolled growth due to changes in their genetic makeup.

      Malignant cells that are resistant to treatment may return after all detectable traces of them have been removed or destroyed.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malignant

      histological details:
      http://www.nature.com/modpathol/journal/v14/n3/full/3880282a.html
      http://www.csuanimalcancercenter.org/tumors-and-specialized-cell-types

  18. QUESTION:
    Where are the successful treatment centers for adenocarcinoma?

    • ANSWER:
      There are designated comprehensive cancer centers throughout the US. What this means is that the top research and medical facilities share information and network treatment protocols. You can check to see if a designated cancer center is near you at the National Cancer Institute website:

      NCI: Cancer Centers Program
      http://cancercenters.cancer.gov/cancer_centers/index.html

      NCI: Cancer Centers List by name, state, region
      http://cancercenters.cancer.gov/cancer_centers/cancer-centers-list.html

      Incidentally you should be more specific as to the type of cancer that the adenocarcinoma affects . . adenocarcinoma starts in the gland tissue of all these sites - breast, colon, lung, prostate, stomach, pancreatic, cervical , and vaginal are all cancers that may be adenocarcinoma related (ie Adenocarcinoma of the breast; Adenocarcinoma of the lung, etc)

  19. QUESTION:
    What are the reasons, other than cancer, for elevation of biological markers cea and ca 15-3?

    • ANSWER:
      here is some info i found on a website..think it is the company that makes the tests...ca153 is more sensitive test that cea (which is less specific)

      Human CA153 (Mucin Breast Cancer) ELISA Kit, Cat # 1830

      ADI's Mucin Breast Cancer ELISA Kit Quantitative provides an enzyme immunoassay system with high sensitivity for measurement of mucin breast cancer antigen (~CA 153) in serum.

      Expected Values

      It is recommended that each laboratory must determine its own normal and abnormal ranges. EOC is not ovarian carcinoma specific. It can also be detected in the cancer of fallopian tube, endometrium, endocervix, pancreas, liver, as well as lung. The elevation of EOC 125 during menstruation is slight (35-80 U/ml) (4). EOC 125 levels associated with stage I ovarian cancer are lower (0-500 U/ml) than levels in advanced stage disease (0-100, 000 U/ml) (4).

      General Information
      The MBC antigen is a membrane anchored mucin type glycoprotein present in a variety of adenocarcinomas including breast, colon, ovary, lung and pancreas, and normal epithelial cells of different organs. The mucin (MBC) is secreted from tumor cells and can be used as serological marker of breast cancer. Several commercial breast cancer assays measuring the MBC breast antigen are available under different brand name, e.g. CA153. Before the introduction of CA 15-3, carcinoembroynic antigen (CEA) was commonly used to monitor breast cancer patients. The CA 15-3 or mucin breast cancer assay is a more sensitive and specific marker in breast cancer than CEA.
      Mucin breast cancer marker correlates with disease progression, regression, or stability in higher number of patients than CEA. The mucin breast cancer assay may have two clinical applications: (i) to identify patients most likely to develop metastatic disease and (ii) to monitor therapy and tumor recurrence.
      http://www.4adi.com/kits/hormones/1830CA153.html

      I don't fully understand this..you could get a book on lab tests and values from a secondhand book store or ebay? or the library?

  20. QUESTION:
    I am 69. Was misdiagnosed to have prostate cancer and given homones -fosfestrol and bicalutamide- for 3 weeks.?
    The aim was to medically castrate me.What antidote, please? My breasts are swollen and nipples sore! MRI test indicate I had BHP (thank heavens!) and have done prostatetomy in January.

    • ANSWER:
      The urologist is of course dependent on a pathologist to read the biopsy slides correctly when the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma is made. This is an unusual case where you are fortunate that the diagnosis was wrong but unfortunate to have side effects from three weeks of hormonal therapy.

      It is time for you to see the urologist again. He or she should discuss this with you and any family members you chose to accompany you. The urologist probably started the hormonal therapy for which you now seek an antidote - rather than just stopping the hormonal medications. That urologist will be unhappy that he or she was given an incorrect diagnosis ( as you state), but the urologist will also be happy that you apparently do not have prostate adenocarcinoma.
      A mixed blessing ?

      Yet there are still confusing aspects of your case. Only an examination of cells under a microscope can make the histopathological diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. The MRI should not be able to distinguish malignancy definitively from BPH based on this imaging study alone.
      Since you had your prostate gland surgically removed in January, the pathologists have had the entire gland to slice and make slides for careful microscopic examination examination.

      It sounds like the urologist was treating you for possible or suspected distant spread or stage IV prostate carcinoma. Bicalutamide http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicalutamide : "Bicalutamide is indicated for the treatment of stage D2 metastatic prostate cancer in combination with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue or as a monotherapy."
      Stage D2 is advanced metastatic prostate carcinoma.
      Was your PSA elevated? Were there any plain x-rays of the bones ?
      A bone scan (nuclear medicine) ? CT scan of pelvis, upper abdomen and lungs looking for metastatic disease? Your doctors have this information. We do not.

  21. QUESTION:
    My mom has stage 4 adeno cancer.How much time do she have?

    • ANSWER:
      I am a cancer specialist doctor - retired now after 20 years.
      Stage four adenocarcinoma of what?
      Breast, colon, lung, adrenal gland, gall bladder, etc.
      There are many types of adenocarcinomas - all very different diseases.
      Adenocarcinoma simply means one of many types of gland forming cancers.
      Where has it spread? Lungs, bones, liver, brain, etc.
      What is the volume of the malignant disease?
      What is the age of your mother? What is her overall health?
      What treatments have been tried? How has she responded?
      - - -
      No one - and I mean no one - on this site should make predictions with such vague parameters.
      No one here can possibly know or even guess without detailed information.
      The oncologist who knows all the details of your mom's case could make the best guess, but it will still be a guess.
      The best cancer specialists in the world never know the future exactly.

  22. QUESTION:
    my father is suffering from cancer and now some watery solution is coming out from his stomach,what do i do?
    he had done first surgery,radiotherapy and chemotherapy also but this problem is persisting. doctors are saying to medicate continuously the area where the solution is oozing out. father is weak and his diet intake is low . he does not want to have anything.

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry this is so long, but you really need to know it. There is hope.

      There are more and more reports by establishment oncologists doubting the value of chemotherapy, even to the point of rejecting it outright. One of these, cancer biostatistician Dr. Ulrich Abel, of Heidelberg, Germany, issued a monograph titled Chemotherapy of Advanced Epithelial Cancer in 1990. Epithelial cancers comprise the most common forms of adenocarcinoma: lung, breast, prostate, colon, etc. After ten years as a statistician in clinical oncology, Abel became increasingly uneasy. "A sober and unprejudiced analysis of the literature," he wrote, "has rarely revealed any therapeutic success by the regimens in question in treating advanced epithelial cancer." While chemotherapy is being used more and more extensively, more than a million people die worldwide of these cancers annually - and a majority have received some form of chemotherapy before dying. Abel further concluded, after polling hundreds of cancer doctors, "The personal view of many oncologists seems to be in striking contrast to communications intended for the public." Abel cited studies that have shown "that many oncologists would not take chemotherapy themselves if they had cancer." (The Cancer Chronicles, December, 1990.)
      "Even though toxic drugs often do effect a response, such as a partial or complete shrinkage of the tumor, this reduction does not prolong expected survival," Abel finds. "Sometimes, in fact, the cancer returns more aggressively than before, since the chemo fosters the growth of resistant cell lines." Besides, the chemo has severely damaged the body's own defenses, the immune system and often the kidneys as well as the liver.
      In an especially dramatic table, Dr. Abel displays the results of chemotherapy in patients with various types of cancers, as the improvement of survival rates, compared to untreated patients. This table shows:
      -In colorectal cancer: no evidence survival is improved.
      -Gastric cancer: no clear evidence.
      -Pancreatic cancer: Study completely negative. Longer survival in control (untreated) group.
      -Bladder: no clinical trial done.
      -Breast cancer: No direct evidence that chemotherapy prolongs survival; its use is "ethically questionable."
      -Ovarian cancer: no direct evidence.
      -Cervix and uterus: No improved survival.
      -Head and neck: no survival benefit but occasional shrinkage of tumors.

      Search for answers by looking outside of the medical field, in the area of alternative medicine. There are hundreds of methods to heal the body of any issue and drugs only suppress the issue (not heal it). Most disease issues are internal because the blood has toxins. The system needs to be cleansed (colon and liver especially), and given nutrition.

      Cleansing the body is a method Ive seen done many times with success and it doesn't matter how old you are. Must remove the toxins in the blood. One strategy is detoxifying with herbs, water, and juice fasting. One must educate oneself.

      THIS IS IMPORTANT! There are ways to BEAT cancer that are currently being used in Europe and around the world, and there are some great books on the subject. I know because I've read about 50 of them from cover to cover. Here's a list of the best ones. Some are out of print and getting hard to find--

      "The Cure for All Cancers", ISBN 0963632825
      "The Cure for All Advanced Cancers", ISBN 1890035165
      "A Cancer Therapy", ISBN 0882681052
      "Oxygen Therapies", ISBN 0962052701
      "Hydrogen Peroxide--Medical Miracle", ISBN 1885236077
      "The Natural Cure for Cancer--Germanium", ISBN 0533071410
      "Killing Cancer", ISBN 0705000966
      "Natural Cures 'They' Don't Want You to Know About", ISBN 0975599518

      I know of people whose cancer has 'spontaneously remitted' (WENT AWAY for no known reason) AFTER they went on programs of herbs and nutrition to restart their immune systems.

      You and your family must look out for yourselves to stand a chance of being healthy. This is not a joke, and I'm not selling anything--just trying to help.
      I am using the things I learned in those books right now to fight off a second infestation of cancer. I've been at it for over a year now, and think I'm going to make it. Best of luck.

  23. QUESTION:
    Is stage 4 breast adenocarcinoma live longer ?
    CONDITIONS - mets to liver , both lungs and bones .

    Good conditions - Good Health , Good Will power and no internal cavity in any parts , avoiding sugar .
    Please Help!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1

    • ANSWER:
      Anyone who has stage 4 cancer is not in good health and I have no idea what avoiding sugar or will power has to do with anything.
      If you are trying to ask how the patient can live longer, all they can do is follow the treatment plan proposed by their oncologist.

  24. QUESTION:
    Stage 4 cancer ( What is ck 6 and p63 negative in biopsy Please HELP! )?
    " Metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma consistent with metastasis of duct carcinoma "

    My mom has a stage 4 breast cancer mets to liver , lungs and bones bur no cavitation found in ct scan report , She has a great will power and she's highly positive and doing well with a good health.
    Is there any Hope to live longer
    WHAT is " Metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma consistent with metastasis of duct carcinoma "

    • ANSWER:
      Metastatic means it spread to this location from somewhere else in the body.
      Poorly differentiated means the cells are aggressive and little to no resemblance of a normal cell.
      Adenocarcinoma is a cancer of an epithelium that originates in glandular tissue and is the most common type of cancer there is.
      “Consistent with metastasis of duct carcinoma " doesn’t really make sense. I believe it should be DUCTAL carcinoma which is a type of breast cancer.
      CK6 is a cytokeratin stain and p63 is a gene. The cells from this biopsy were checked for these things to help the pathologist determine the primary site. Breast cancer would be negative for both.

  25. QUESTION:
    Epithelial cell? I'm really confused can somebody pleeeaaassseee help me!?
    in adult humans, most cancers are carcinomas or adenocarcinomas involving various types of epithelial tissue cells. These include cancers of the skin, lung, colon, breast, and prostate. Why do you think that most cancers arise from epithelial cells?

    I asked my teacher and he told me it had to do with their location and cellular process but i'm still confused

    • ANSWER:
      That's a great question. Epithelial cells are particularly prone to becoming cancerous because they are the cells that tend to be exposed to the harshest environments. Furthermore, most cancers of epithelial cells tend to occur in areas where the epithelium is transitioning from one type to another. In these areas, the cells have unusual properties and are more prone to break away.

      Most cells have very specific mechanisms preventing them from dividing when they need not to, but cells in these vague transition areas appear to be less regulated in that manner, and its not known for certain why (but there are a lot of theories). Also, persistent damage to an epithelium will cause sections of cells to become a different, tougher type of epithelium, thus creating another one of these transition areas. This often preceeds cancers of the mouth, esophagus, and lungs. For example, persistent damage to the lining of the esophagus from acid reflux will cause sections to become a tougher epithelium, creating a new set of dangerous transition areas.

      It's okay that you're confused, you should be, because cancer is a subject no one really understands completely!

  26. QUESTION:
    Types of lung cancer it sounds like swamis?

    • ANSWER:
      There are two main types of lung cancer categorized by the size and appearance of the malignant cells seen by a histopathologist under a microscope: non-small cell (80%) and small-cell (roughly 20%) lung cancer. This classification although based on simple pathomorphological criteria has very important implications for clinical management and prognosis of the disease.

      Non-small cell lung cancer
      The non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are grouped together because their prognosis and management is roughly identical. When it cannot be subtyped, it is frequently coded to 8046/3. The subtypes are:

      (M8070/3) Squamous cell carcinoma, accounting for 20% to 25% of NSCLC, also starts in the larger breathing tubes but grows slower meaning that the size of these tumours varies on diagnosis.
      (M8140/3) Adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of NSCLC, accounting for 50% to 60% of NSCLC. It is a form which starts near the gas-exchanging surface of the lung. Most cases of the adenocarcinoma are associated with smoking. However, among non-smokers and in particular female non-smokers, adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer. A subtype of adenocarcinoma, the bronchioalveolar carcinoma, is more common in female non-smokers and may have different responses to treatment.
      Large cell carcinoma is a fast-growing form that grows near the surface of the lung. It is primarily a diagnosis of exclusion, and when more investigation is done, it is usually reclassified to squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma.

      Small cell lung cancer

      Lung small cell carcinoma (microscopic view from a core needle biopsy)(M8041/3) Small cell carcinoma (SCLC, also called "oat cell carcinoma") is the less common form of lung cancer. It tends to start in the larger breathing tubes and grows rapidly becoming quite large. The oncogene most commonly involved is L-myc. The "oat" cell contains dense neurosecretory granules which give this an endocrine/paraneoplastic syndrome association. It is initially more sensitive to chemotherapy, but ultimately carries a worse prognosis and is often metastatic at presentation. This type of lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking.

      Other types
      Carcinoid
      Adenoid cystic carcinoma
      Cylindroma
      Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

      Metastatic
      The lung is a common place for metastasis from tumors in other parts of the body. These cancers, however, are identified by the site of origin, i.e., a breast cancer metastasis to the lung is still known as breast cancer. The adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone are the most common sites of metastasis from primary lung cancer itself.

  27. QUESTION:
    Mastectomy for feline breast cancer... your thoughts?
    My 10 year old cat was recently diagnosed with breast cancer (adenocarcinoma/cystadenocarcinoma, infiltrative), although I suspect she may have had it for almost 2 years (she was staying with a relative for a while, and I noticed the lumps when I got her back). Her chest x-rays were nice and clear, blood work was unremarkable, and she's acting completely normal. I brought her to an oncologist who recommended chemotherapy every 4 weeks (she's already had her first dose, the drug is Carboplatin, she tolerated it completely, no side effects) and also a radical bilateral mastectomy. There's no way to know if she has months or years left right now. I brought her for a surgical consult (we started chemo before the surgery because her appointment with the surgeon was weeks away, and we are still trying to come up with the money) and the surgeon said that even with the mastectomy, the cancer could return on her vascular wall.

    I'm torn. Should I put her through the surgery? Has anyone heard of just treating with chemo and no surgery? Or should I just do nothing and let nature takes it's terrible course? I want to do everything I can to help her live as long as possible with the best quality of life. Any advice that you may have would be greatly appreciated.

    Thank you so much for your time.

    • ANSWER:
      I have been a member of the Yahoo group: feline-cancer for two years now. It seems that the mammary cancer has good survival rates with surgery and chemo. I strongly suggest you join the group to get the support you need and also good information from people who have cats with that cancer.

      I actually lost my 12 year old neutered MALE cat from mammary cancer just four years ago. By the time his was discovered the cancer had already metastisized to his lungs.

  28. QUESTION:
    How can someone be diagnosed with stage four lung cancer and never have had it detected at any time?
    My wife was recently diagnosed with stage four lung cancer. We would never have known it had it not been for some pain in her leg. After getting the wrong diagnoses a few times an x-ray was ordered which was followed by an MRI and a bone scan which showed two tumors on the right fibia. Before the surgery to remove the tumors a cat scan was done that showed tumors in her lungs, liver,ovaries, and thyroid. After the surgery the pathology report showed that the tumors all originated in the lungs where the primary tumor was and thjat the cancer was stage four and it is incurable. My wife always goes to the doctor ona routine basis. She does all the tests that a woman has done every year. In the last year she has had blood work done, chest x-rays etc. etc.. There was never anything that showed up. How could this thing get from a beginning stage to a stage four without any symptoms or discovery untill it spreads to the bone and causes pain? If you were examining blood wouldn't other readings come off weird if someone had cancer even though you weren't looking for it?

    • ANSWER:
      Routine blood tests miss cancers all the time. This is very common.
      Routine chest x-rays or even routine CT scans in smokers have not been shown to greatly improve the prognosis with lung carcinomas.

      I agree with "Jo March" and "Nah Z"
      except that lung cancers do not really progress that quickly.
      It required years of growth for your wife's malignancy to present with symptoms.

      I've said it many times on this site - malignancies must be diagnosed before there are symptoms.
      One billion lung cancer cells is about the size of a marble.
      A cancer has gone through 75% of its total cell divisons to get to that size - and it is still asymptomatic.
      When lung carcinomas present in stage IV with widespread metastatic disease, they have already progressed through ~90% of their growth.
      This happens very, very often with lung carcinomas.
      That is one reason why only 1 in 7 people (~15%) diagnosed with lung carcinomas survives 5 years.

      Has your wife been a cigarette smoker?
      85 to 90% of lung carcinomas are thought to be related to cigarette smoking.
      Spread to the thyroid and ovaries is a bit unusual for lung carcinoma.
      It would be better - prognosis and treatment wise - if this were a malignancy that originated in the thyroid or the ovaries.
      Are the pathologists certain of the original - the primary - malignancy?
      "Adenocarcinomas" - cancers of glandular tissue - can originate in lungs, thyroid, or ovaries.
      What is the histology of this malignancy?
      What is the age of your wife?
      Age and medical history help us so much here.
      We rarely have enough information to make an educated analysis.

      Added note - In your personal e-mail you mention a 2.5 cm lung lesion thought to be the primary carcinoma. Your oncologist is convinced this it a primary lung carcinoma.
      I ask again - what is the histology? Very important ! !
      Is this an adenocarcinoma, a squamous cell carcinoma, a small cell carcinoma, or an undifferentiated carcinoma?
      If this is an adenocarcinoma, it is time to think outside of the box before giving up.
      Stage IV non-small cell carcinomas do not respond to chemotherapy well and do not have a good prognosis, but an oncologist must be certain of the diagnosis before giving up on a 53 year old healthy woman patient. Has the oncologist looked at the biopsy slides with the pathologist? I always did this in difficult cases. Non-small cell lung carcinomas in healthy women with a minimal smoking history are not particularly common. Breast cancers with metastases to lungs, ovaries, bones, and even the thyroid gland are not uncommon. The responses to systemic treatments for a breast adenocarcinomas are much better than response to chemotherapy for non-small cell lung carcinomas.
      Is this an adenocarcinoma - or not? Of course a primary ovarian adenocarcinoma could do this - except that ovarian adenocarcinomas rarely go to bone. A metastatic thyroid adenocarcinoma could spread to all of these areas, but these are very rare.
      An occult primary breast carcinoma could easily masquerade as a metastatic adenocarcinoma thought to be a non-small cell lung primary carcinoma.
      This is thinking outside the box - something I always encouraged my medical students and interns to do. Has Maryann had a CA15-3 blood test done? A CA-125 blood test? Were estrogen and progesterone receptors checked on the tumor biopsy material? Have all possibilities been considered?
      Of course I am going off on collateral possibilities since I do not have the real details of this case. The histopathology is the key. What do these cancer cells look like under the microscope? Your oncologist has probably already looked at the biopsy slides with one or more pathologists to confirm the diagnosis. Your oncologist has probably already considered all of the alternative possibilities that would be much more treatable - would have a more optimistic prognosis. I suppose my concern is that oncologists today may be too busy to do all of the work required to consider every possibility. When I was working 80 -100 hours each week and going to five hospitals, I found it was difficult to look at every x-ray, every blood smear, and every pathology slide myself - though I still tried to do this. Of course I burned out trying so hard and working so many hours. Maybe younger oncologists pace themselves and cut corners so they can have a life. Oncology is a thinking specialty. The first rule of cancer medicine is that cancers follow no rules. An oncologist must be thinking all of time. If not, he or she may miss something important. In cases like Maryanns's - extra time and extra thinking is especially important. It is not common for a one inch (2.5cm) diameter primary lung carcinoma to present with such widespread large volume metastatic lesions in a 53 year old woman with very little tobacco exposure. Her doctors should be thinking - what else could this be ? ?

      You have not told us what treatment is being considered or perhaps already started ? There are many different chemotherapy regimens these days We have over 100 chemotherapy drugs and hundreds of combinations that may help depending on the type of cancer being treated. Guessing which regimen to try is the real art of oncology.

  29. QUESTION:
    Can cancer be passed down?
    What types of cancer can be passed down? Like from genetics or w/e? please help doing research for my english class

    • ANSWER:
      Probably the most prominent cancers with a hereditary component is colonic adenocarcinoma, which has a very strong hereditary component, and is the reason that screening is so important if there is a positive family history. Breast cancer, lung cancer, and some endocrine tumors have hereditary predisposition as well.

  30. QUESTION:
    Adenocarcinoma-NSC lung cancer?
    Hey yahoo users, i would really appriciate anyone that would try to help solve me question.

    So i would like to know what are the chances for surviving adenocarcinoma non-small cell lung cancer
    well, my mom got diagnosed with stage 3(3)-4 she is still being tested to see if it has got into the bones or brain yet, she has it in both breastes the left lung and somwhere below the stomach ( i think the colon) so she is not too strong since she has been working hard her whole life and was on medication for depression. Anyways so what are her chances for survival 1-5 years, 5-10 or full recovery? THANKS FOR THE HELP! (also if anyone has had lung cancer or somone in your family and it would be great if you could give me idaes on what she should eat, do etc....) THANKS AGAIN!

    • ANSWER:
      The breast is a very unusual place for lung cancer to spread, but it does mean it is stage 4 and not curable. Median survival is about 8 months.

  31. QUESTION:
    what are the symptoms and causes for lung cancer.?

    • ANSWER:
      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in the WORLD, among both men and women. It claims more lives each year than colon, prostate, lymph and breast cancers combined.

      SYMPTOMS.
      Lung cancer typically doesn't cause signs and symptoms in its earliest stages. Signs and symptoms of lung cancer typically occur only when the disease is advanced. Signs and symptoms of lung cancer may include:

      -A new cough that doesn't go away
      -Changes in a chronic cough or "smoker's cough"
      -Coughing up blood, even a small amount
      -Shortness of breath
      -Chest pain
      -Wheezing
      -Hoarseness

      CAUSES
      Lung cancer most commonly begins in the cells that line your lungs. Smoking causes the majority of lung cancers — both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke. But lung cancer also occurs in people who never smoked. In these cases, there may be no clear cause of lung cancer. Doctors have identified factors that may increase the risk.

      How smoking causes lung cancer
      Doctors believe smoking causes lung cancer by damaging the cells that line the lungs. When you inhale cigarette smoke, which is full of cancer-causing substances (carcinogens), changes in the lung tissue begin almost immediately. At first your body may be able to repair this damage. But with each repeated exposure, normal cells that line your lungs are increasingly damaged. Over time, the damage causes cells to act abnormally and eventually cancer may develop.

      Your lungs are full of blood vessels and lymph vessels, giving lung cancer cells easy access to travel to other parts of your body. For this reason, lung cancer may spread to other parts of your body before you experience any signs or symptoms. In many cases, lung cancer may spread before it can even be detected in the lungs.

      Types of lung cancer
      Doctors divide lung cancer into two major types based on the appearance of lung cancer cells under the microscope. Your doctor makes treatment decisions based on which major type of lung cancer you have. The two general types of lung cancer include:

      -Small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer, sometimes called oat cell carcinoma, occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.
      -Non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is an umbrella term for several types of lung cancers that behave in a similar way. Non-small cell lung cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. -

  32. QUESTION:
    Is anyone familar with adenocarsinoma?
    My mother in law has cancer for the 2nd time first it was in her
    breast 25yrs ago now its in her liver and she has some
    nodguals on her lungs and maybe a little in her bones

    • ANSWER:
      Adenocarcinoma is simply a description of the type of cancer cells seen under the microscope. Many types of cancer can be described as adenocarcinoma, including cancers of the breast, lung, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and many others. Just because different cancers are described as adenocarcinoma does not mean they will behave the same way or have the same degree of aggressiveness.

      It sounds like your MIL originally developed cancers of the breast 25 years ago and now she has some cancers involving the liver, lung, and bones? Depending on the pathologic diagnosis, this maybe an unusual case of metastatic breast cancer (after a very long cancer-free period) that has spread now to these new areas, or it could be a new cancer (e.g. lung cancer) that is spreading to the liver and bones. These two diagnosis may portend very different outcome. Therefore, only after discussing with an oncologist who has reviewed all the pertinent information can one tell what the prognosis is.

  33. QUESTION:
    what are the symptoms and causes of lung cancer.?

    • ANSWER:
      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in the WORLD, among both men and women. It claims more lives each year than colon, prostate, lymph and breast cancers combined.

      SYMPTOMS.
      Lung cancer typically doesn't cause signs and symptoms in its earliest stages. Signs and symptoms of lung cancer typically occur only when the disease is advanced. Signs and symptoms of lung cancer may include:

      -A new cough that doesn't go away
      -Changes in a chronic cough or "smoker's cough"
      -Coughing up blood, even a small amount
      -Shortness of breath
      -Chest pain
      -Wheezing
      -Hoarseness

      CAUSES
      Lung cancer most commonly begins in the cells that line your lungs. Smoking causes the majority of lung cancers — both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke. But lung cancer also occurs in people who never smoked. In these cases, there may be no clear cause of lung cancer. Doctors have identified factors that may increase the risk.

      How smoking causes lung cancer
      Doctors believe smoking causes lung cancer by damaging the cells that line the lungs. When you inhale cigarette smoke, which is full of cancer-causing substances (carcinogens), changes in the lung tissue begin almost immediately. At first your body may be able to repair this damage. But with each repeated exposure, normal cells that line your lungs are increasingly damaged. Over time, the damage causes cells to act abnormally and eventually cancer may develop.

      Your lungs are full of blood vessels and lymph vessels, giving lung cancer cells easy access to travel to other parts of your body. For this reason, lung cancer may spread to other parts of your body before you experience any signs or symptoms. In many cases, lung cancer may spread before it can even be detected in the lungs.

      Types of lung cancer
      Doctors divide lung cancer into two major types based on the appearance of lung cancer cells under the microscope. Your doctor makes treatment decisions based on which major type of lung cancer you have. The two general types of lung cancer include:

      -Small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer, sometimes called oat cell carcinoma, occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.
      -Non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is an umbrella term for several types of lung cancers that behave in a similar way. Non-small cell lung cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. -

  34. QUESTION:
    IF SOMEONE HAS COLON CANCER THAT IS ALSO IN THE BONES OR HAS SPREAD TO THE BONES.....?
    IF SOMEONE HAS COLON CANCER AND IT IS IN THE BONES OR HAS SPREAD TO THE BONES AND IS GOING THROUGH TREATMENT IS THERE A GOOD CHANCE OF IT BEING CURED?

    • ANSWER:
      Stage four colon cancer - metastatic disease - is not considered a curable disease in current medicine. The therapeutic goal is to buy time as much as possible. Of course, all doctors caring for people are trying to buy time since everyone is mortal, but with colon cancer spread to distant sites it is a matter of buying some additional months - usually not years.

      It is very unusual for colon adenocarcinomas to spread to the bones. Are you certain that the bone lesions are metastatic colon adenocarcinoma?

      Prostate cancer, lung cancer or breast adenocarcinomas are far more likely to spread to the bones than a colon carcinoma. If this is breast cancer or prostate cancer (you don't say if the person is male or female) there may be responses with hormonal therapy approaches.

      The oncologist caring for this person should be explaining the situation honestly with the patient and family members entrusted by the patient. The medical oncologist who knows all the details of the case can best make these predictions. We cannot be specific - over the internet - with sketchy information.

  35. QUESTION:
    adenocarcinoma stage 4 prognosis?
    How long can a person live with adenocarcinoma stage 4?
    with chemo

    • ANSWER:
      Adenocarcinoma is cancer occurring in the cell tissue that lines glandular types of internal organs, including lungs, breasts, prostate, stomach, liver, pancreas and cervix. All cancers are graded, in regards to severity, treatment options and prognosis, in four stages. But the prognosis of these stages can vary according to the type of cancer and where it occurs in the body.

      Stage IV Lung Adenocarcinoma

      Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma is inoperable and does not usually respond to radiation or chemotherapy. According to the National Cancer Institute, only 17 percent of those diagnosed with Stage IV survive beyond five years; eight to 10 months is the usual prognosis.

      Stage IV Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

      Thirty percent of people with Stage IV pancreatic cancer have a three-year survival rate, but less than 5 percent survive five years, according to the Washington University School of Medicine.

      Stage IV Breast Adenocarcinoma

      The prognosis for Stage IV breast cancer is one of the better ones -- it has a 20 percent five-year survival rate, according to the American Cancer Society.

      Stage IV Gastric Cancer and Cholangiocarcinoma

      There is a 7 percent five-year survival rate for those with Stage IV gastric cancer, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer. With cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct liver cancer), in cases where surgical resection of the bile ducts is not possible, the five-year survival rate is 0 percent; the overall survival rate is less than six months, according to the Cholangiocarcinoma Foundation.

      Stage IV Prostate and Cervical Cancers

      Prognosis is difficult to pinpoint with prostate and cervical cancers, partly because these cancers respond well to treatment, even in later stages. Also, with prostate cancer, certain clinical tests can indicate a better individual prognosis for some patients. Stage IV cervical adenocarcinoma that has spread to the bladder or rectum has a 20 to 30 percent five-year survival rate, according to the Women's Cancer Center, after diagnosis and treatment.

  36. QUESTION:
    what is meant by adenocarcinoma
    pls include other types of cancer

    • ANSWER:
      It is typically a type of cancer that arises anywhere within the body and has to do with the glands . .the cells are associated with epithelial tissue that is found in the colon, breast, lung, prostrate, stomach, vagina and other body areas. Adenocarcimoma with epithelial origin is typical of older adult type cancers and rarely appears in childhood or adolescent cancers (non-epithelial in origin). Epithelial cancers tend to occur as a person ages . . thus childhood cancers are usually non-epithelial and young adults have both epithelial and non-epithelial and older adults have epithelial cancers of the adenocarcinoma type (though exceptions occur too).

      NCI: Definition for adenocarcinoma
      http://www.cancer.gov/Templates/db_alpha.aspx?CdrID=46216

      Adenocarcinoma
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenocarcinoma

      Epithelial Tissue
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epithelial_tissue

  37. QUESTION:
    Lung Cancer.?
    My Best friend in the whole worlds Mother found out she had cancer two years ago in her breast, it was at a early stage, and they were able to clear it all. During this time they thought she had cancer in the lungs too, but then they just told her it was a "shadow". The other day she went to the hospital, because she was having symptoms of appendicitis. They ran test and found she had cancer in the lungs, and they are running test to find out if she has cancer in the spot she was hurting.
    I was wondering what is the chance of her over coming cancer?
    And I think the lung cancer isnt aggressive, yet, so what do you think?

    • ANSWER:
      Facts about Lung Cancer:
      Cancer of the lung (bronchogenic carcinoma) is responsible for 10% of all deaths in the US and makes up 40% of all cancer deaths. Lung cancer is most common in men and those over 40 yrs of age. The overall 5 year survival rate of patients with lung cancer is only 10-20%. Surgery is usually an option in about 30% of the cases and chemotherapy is commonly used as well. Even when a patient is experiencing early symptoms lung cancer and has surgery in Stage I cancer, the five year survival rate is only 50%, stage II is 20-30%, and Stage III tumors only 5-10%. Chemotherapy for squamous cell cancers and adenocarcinoma will usually only slow down lung cancer symtoms or growth of the cancer for a time. Lung cancer is the third most frequent form of cancer for both men and women.

      http://www.newhopehealthclinic.com/lung_cancer_symptoms_pictures_of_lungs.htm

  38. QUESTION:
    Esophagus Cancer?
    Hi, how common is Esophagus cancer? and if someone has acid reflux and or heartburn, how many years would it take to develop into esophagus cancer? also, if someone takes Prilosec or Nexium and goes on the 14 day program, then stops and it returns very shortly later, does that mean there is a good chance someone has esophagus cancer? does the esophagus heal when someone is on prilosec or nexium?

    sorry for all the questions and thanks for your answers!
    I dont have cancer by the way, i was just wondering about this for a friend of mine who might think she has the cancer..thanks again

    • ANSWER:
      Esophageal cancer is a serious form of cancer that starts in the inner layer of your esophagus, the 10-inch long tube that connects your throat and stomach. The most common symptom of esophageal cancer, usually occurring late in the disease, is difficulty swallowing and a sensation of food getting stuck in your throat or chest.

      In the past, the outlook for people with esophageal cancer was poor. But survival rates have improved, in part because close monitoring of Barrett's esophagus — a serious, premalignant complication of acid reflux disease — can help detect cancer early, when it's more likely to respond to treatment.

      It's unusual to have signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer in the early stages of the disease. When the disease is more advanced, esophageal cancer symptoms may include:

      Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Although this is the most common symptom of esophageal cancer, it usually doesn't appear until a tumor has grown large enough to narrow your esophagus to about half its normal width. At this point, meat and bread may be nearly impossible to swallow, and you may unconsciously change your eating habits, chewing more thoroughly and carefully, or switching to softer foods. In time, even liquids may be hard to swallow.
      Unintentional weight loss. As eating becomes more difficult, you may not consume enough calories to maintain your weight. In addition, cancer in general can cause weight loss and muscle wasting because it changes the way your body metabolizes nutrients.
      Pain in your throat, in your midchest or between your shoulder blades. Although not common, you sometimes might have pain when you swallow or discomfort or burning behind your breastbone.
      Hoarseness, hiccups and sometimes vomiting of blood. These signs and symptoms usually don't appear until cancer is quite advanced.

      Although the esophagus is essentially a hollow tube, its walls are composed of a number of highly specialized layers, including an inner lining made up of thin, flat cells (squamous cells), a layer below the inner lining (submucosa) that contains mucus-secreting glands, and a thick band of muscle tissue.

      When you eat or drink, a muscle in the upper part of your esophagus (upper esophageal sphincter) relaxes, allowing food and liquid to enter. Smooth muscles in the esophagus wall then move the food along in a series of rhythmic contractions — a process called peristalsis.

      Another ring of muscle, the lower esophageal sphincter, sits at the junction where your esophagus and stomach connect. It opens to allow food into your stomach and then clamps shut so that corrosive stomach acids and digestive enzymes don't back up into the esophagus.

      Cancer can occur almost anywhere along the length of the esophagus and is classified according to the types of cells in which it originates:

      Squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma. The most common esophageal cancer in black Americans and the most prevalent esophageal cancer worldwide, squamous cell carcinoma develops in the flat squamous cells that line the esophagus.
      Adenocarcinoma. This arises in the glandular tissue in the lower part of the esophagus nearest the stomach. In the United States, adenocarcinoma is more common in whites than in blacks. During the past two decades, this type of cancer has increased by 50 percent in black Americans and 450 percent in white Americans.
      Others. Although squamous cell and adenocarcinoma are the primary types of esophageal cancer, other, rare forms of the disease sometimes occur. These include sarcoma, lymphoma, small cell carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma. In addition, cancer that starts in the breast or lung can spread (metastasize) through the bloodstream or lymph system to the esophagus.
      Contributing factors
      Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way. This process is controlled by DNA — the genetic material that contains the instructions for every chemical process in your body. When DNA is damaged, changes occur in these instructions. One result is that cells may begin to grow out of control and eventually form a tumor — a mass of malignant cells.

      Although researchers don't know all the causes of esophageal cancer, they have identified several factors that can damage DNA in your esophagus. These factors include:

      Heavy alcohol consumption. In Western nations, many of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas result from chronic alcohol abuse. Long-term heavy drinking irritates the lining of the esophagus, leading to inflammation that eventually may cause malignant changes in the cells.
      Tobacco use. Using tobacco in any form, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes and chewing tobacco, increases your likelihood of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The risk increases with long-term use and rises even more for people who both smoke and drink.
      Chronic acid reflux. Sometimes the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes abnormally or weakens, allowing caustic stomach acids to back up into your esophagus (esophageal reflux). The result is heartburn — a burning chest discomfort that in severe cases may mimic the symptoms of a heart attack.

      Occasional heartburn usually isn't serious, but chronic acid reflux can lead to Barrett's esophagus, a condition in which cells similar to your stomach's glandular cells develop in the lower esophagus. These new cells are resistant to stomach acid, but they also have a high potential for malignancy. Gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of about one-third of esophageal cancers. Smoking, obesity and a high-sodium diet put you at increased risk of reflux problems.

      Diet. Eating a diet low in fruits and vegetables appears to contribute to esophageal cancer. Especially implicated are diets lacking in vitamins A, C and B-1 (riboflavin). People with low levels of the mineral selenium have a higher risk of esophageal cancer than do people with normal blood-selenium levels. Because high doses of selenium can be toxic, experts recommend getting selenium from foods such as fish, whole-grain bread, Brazil nuts and walnuts rather than from supplements.
      Obesity. Weighing significantly more than your ideal weight — having a body mass index greater than 25 — has been linked to an increased risk of adenocarcinoma.
      Sometimes esophageal cancer is associated with certain rare medical conditions, including:

      Achalasia. In this disorder, food collects at the bottom of the esophagus, both because the esophagus lacks normal peristalsis to move food along and because the lower esophageal sphincter doesn't relax normally. For reasons that aren't clear, having achalasia seems to increase your risk of esophageal cancer.
      Esophageal webs. These thin protrusions of tissue can appear anywhere in your esophagus. Some webs cause no symptoms, but others can make swallowing difficult. When other problems — including anemia and abnormalities of the tongue, fingernails and spleen — occur in conjunction with esophageal webs, the condition is called Plummer-Vinson or Paterson-Kelly syndrome. People with this syndrome are at risk of developing esophageal cancer.
      Tylosis. Excess skin develops on the soles and palms of people with tylosis, a rare inherited disorder. Close to half the people with tylosis eventually develop esophageal cancer. A genetic defect appears to be responsible for both tylosis and the associated cancer.

      Heavy drinking, smoking and chronic acid reflux or Barrett's esophagus are some of the most significant risk factors for esophageal cancer.

      Other factors that may increase your chances of developing esophageal cancer include:

      Age. Your risk of developing esophageal cancer increases as you grow older. Most people with the disease are between 55 and 70. The risk is much less if you're younger than 40.
      Sex. Men are far more likely to develop esophageal cancer than women are.
      Race. In the United States, esophageal cancer, especially squamous cell esophageal cancer, is much more common in blacks than it is in whites. But white Americans are more likely than black Americans to have esophageal adenocarcinoma.
      Diet. If your diet is low in fruits and vegetables, or you're very overweight, you're at increased risk of esophageal cancer.
      Radiation therapy. People who've had radiation treatment to treat cancers near the esophagus have a higher risk of esophageal cancer.
      Occupational exposure. People who work with dry cleaning solvents appear to have an increased risk of esophageal cancer, as do people exposed to silica dust — a primary component of sandstone and granite. Miners, people working in the pressurized spaces used in building tunnels, and construction workers, especially those handling brick, concrete or tile, are likely to be exposed to high levels of silica dust.
      Drinking hot liquids. There's some evidence that people who frequently consume very hot beverages have an increased risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer.

      See your doctor if you have difficulty swallowing, a chronic cough or unintended weight loss. Having these signs and symptoms doesn't mean you have esophageal cancer. A number of other conditions can cause similar problems, and your doctor can perform tests to help determine the cause.

      Also seek treatment if you experience gastroesophageal reflux, which can cause inflammation in your esophagus and increase your risk of esophageal cancer.

      Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux include:

      Regurgitation. This leaves a sour taste and the sense of food re-entering your mouth.
      Burning chest pain. Commonly called heartburn, this symptom may occur especially after meals or at night when you're lying down.
      Difficulty swallowing. This is often due to a spasm or stricture in your esophagus.
      Coughing, wheezing, asthma, hoarseness or sore throat. This often results from acid reflux in your throat or windpipe.

  39. QUESTION:
    is there anyone there who knows about lung cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for up to 3 million deaths annually. Although lung cancer was previously an illness that predominantly affected males, the incidence in women has been increasing in the last few decades, which has been attributed to the rising ratio of female to male smokers. Currently, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, overshadowing breast cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancers combined.[1] However, it is of note that there are certain types of lung cancers that appear in otherwise healthy patients who have never smoked.

      Current research indicates that the factor with the greatest impact on risk of lung cancer is long-term exposure to inhaled carcinogens. The most common means of such exposure is tobacco smoke.

      Treatment and prognosis depend upon the histological type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the patient's performance status. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.

      Symptoms that suggest lung cancer include:

      dyspnea (shortness of breath)
      hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
      chronic coughing or change in regular coughing pattern
      wheezing
      chest pain or pain in the abdomen
      cachexia (weight loss), fatigue and loss of appetite
      dysphonia (hoarse voice)
      clubbing of the fingernails (uncommon)
      difficulty swallowing
      If the cancer grows into the lumen it may obstruct the airway, causing breathing difficulties. This can lead to accumulation of secretions behind the blockage, predisposing the patient to pneumonia.

      Many lung cancers have a rich blood supply. The surface of the cancer may be fragile, leading to bleeding from the cancer into the airway. This blood may subsequently be coughed up.

      Depending on the type of tumor, so-called paraneoplastic phenomena may initially attract attention to the disease. In lung cancer, this may be Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to auto-antibodies), hypercalcemia and SIADH. Tumors in the top (apex) of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to changed sweating patterns and eye muscle problems (a combination known as Horner's syndrome), as well as muscle weakness in the hands due to invasion of the brachial plexus.

      In many patients, the cancer has already spread beyond the original site by the time they have symptoms and seek medical attention. Common sites of metastasis include the bone, such as the spine (causing back pain and occasionally spinal cord compression), the liver and the brain.

      There are two main types of lung cancer categorized by the size and appearance of the malignant cells seen by a histopathologist under a microscope: non-small cell (80%) and small-cell (roughly 20%) lung cancer. This classification although based on simple pathomorphological criteria has very important implications for clinical management and prognosis of the disease.

      The non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are grouped together because their prognosis and management is roughly identical. When it cannot be subtyped, it is frequently coded to 8046/3. The subtypes are:

      (M8070/3) Squamous cell carcinoma, accounting for 20% to 25% of NSCLC, also starts in the larger breathing tubes but grows slower meaning that the size of these tumours varies on diagnosis.
      (M8140/3) Adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of NSCLC, accounting for 50% to 60% of NSCLC. It is a form which starts near the gas-exchanging surface of the lung. Most cases of the adenocarcinoma are associated with smoking. However, among non-smokers and in particular female non-smokers, adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer. A subtype of adenocarcinoma, the bronchioalveolar carcinoma, is more common in female non-smokers and may have different responses to treatment.
      Large cell carcinoma is a fast-growing form that grows near the surface of the lung. It is primarily a diagnosis of exclusion, and when more investigation is done, it is usually reclassified to squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma.

      (M8041/3) Small cell carcinoma (SCLC, also called "oat cell carcinoma") is the less common form of lung cancer. It tends to start in the larger breathing tubes and grows rapidly becoming quite large. The oncogene most commonly involved is L-myc. The "oat" cell contains dense neurosecretory granules which give this an endocrine/paraneoplastic syndrome association. It is initially more sensitive to chemotherapy, but ultimately carries a worse prognosis and is often metastatic at presentation. This type of lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking.

      Exposure to carcinogens, such as those present in tobacco smoke, immediately causes cumulative changes to the tissue lining the bronchi of the lungs (the bronchial mucous membrane) and more tissue gets damaged until a tumour develops.

      There are four major causes of lung cancer (and cancer in general):

      Carcinogens such as those in cigarette smoke
      Radiation exposure
      Genetic susceptibility
      Viral infection

      Smoking, particularly of cigarettes, is by far the main contributor to lung cancer, which at least in theory makes it one of the easiest diseases to prevent. In the United States, smoking is estimated to account for 87% of lung cancer cases (90% in men and 79% in women), and in the UK for 90%. Cigarette smoke contains 19 known carcinogens[2] including radioisotopes from the radon decay sequence, nitrosamine, and benzopyrene. Additionally, nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue. The length of time a person continues to smoke as well as the amount smoked increases the person's chances of contracting lung cancer. If a person stops smoking, these chances steadily decrease as damage to the lungs is repaired and contaminant particles are gradually vacated. More recent work has shown that, across the developed world, almost 90% of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking.[3]

      Passive smoking—the inhalation of smoke from another's smoking— is claimed to be a cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Studies from the USA (1986,[4][5] 1992,[6] 1997,[7] 2001,[8] 2003[9]), Europe (1998[10]), the UK (1998,[11][12]), and Australia (1997[13]) have consistently shown a significant increase in relative risk among those exposed to passive smoke.

      The EPA in 1993 claimed that about 3,000 lung cancer-related deaths a year were caused by passive smoking. However, since this report was based on a study that was alleged to be heavily biased and was ruled by a federal judge to be "unscientific", the EPA report was declared null and void by a federal judge in 1998(,[14][15]).

      The extensive attempts made by Philip Morris to delay the release of the 1997 IARC study, to affect the wording of its conclusions, to neutralise its negative results for their business, and to counteract its impact on public and policymakers' opinion have been documented by Ong & Glantz in The Lancet journal.[16] Their work was based on 32 million pages of documents made public as part of the settlement of the 1998 legal case of State of Minnesota and Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Minnesota vs Philip Morris Inc, et al. and available at Philip Morris' own website.[17]

      Recent investigation of sidestream smoke suggests it is more dangerous than direct smoke inhalation

      Asbestos
      Asbestos can cause a variety of lung diseases. It increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is a synergistic effect between tobacco smoking and asbestos in the formation of lung cancer.

      Asbestos can also cause cancer of the pleura, called mesothelioma (which is distinct from lung cancer).

      [edit] Radon gas
      Radon is a colorless and odourless gas generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium, which in turn is the decay product of uranium, found in the earth's crust. Radon exposure is the second major cause of lung cancer after smoking. The radiation decay products ionize genetic material, causing mutations that sometimes turn cancerous. Radon gas levels vary by locality and the composition of the underlying soil and rocks. For example, in areas such as Cornwall in the UK (which has granite as substrata), radon gas is a major problem, and buildings have to be force-ventilated with fans to lower radon gas concentrations. In the US, the EPA estimates that one in 15 homes has radon levels above the recommended guideline of 4 pCi/L (150 Bq/m3). Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the United States. Studies performed by R. William Field, Daniel J. Steck, Charles F. Lynch, Brian J. Smith and colleagues at the University of Iowa have demonstrated a 50% increased lung cancer risk with prolonged radon exposure at the EPA's action level of 4 pCi/L ([3]) . Recent pooled epidemiologic radon studies by Dan Krewski et al. (2005; 2006) and Sarah Darby et al. (2005) have also shown an increased lung cancer risk from radon below the U.S. EPA's action level of 4 pCi/L.

      Radon causes lung cancer because it causes arbitrary damage to the chromosomes and DNA molecules contained in the nucleus of the cell.

      [edit] Genetics and viruses
      Oncogenes are genes that are believed make people more susceptible to cancer. Proto-oncogenes are believed to turn into oncogenes when exposed to particular carcinogens. Viruses are also suspected of causing cancer in humans, as this link has already been proven in animals. Genetic susceptibility and viral infection are not of major importance in lung cancer, but they may influence pathogenesis.

      [edit] Lung cancer staging
      Lung cancer staging is an important part of the assessment of prognosis and potential treatment for lung cancer.

      See non-small cell lung cancer staging.

      [edit] Treatment
      Treatment for lung cancer depends on the cancer's specific cell type, how far it has spread, and the patient's performance status. Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

      See also Manchester score.

      [edit] Surgery
      Surgery is usually only an option in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and if the disease is limited to one lung and has not spread beyond its confines. This is assessed with medical imaging (computed tomography, positron emission tomography). Furthermore, as stated, a sufficient respiratory reserve needs to be present to allow for the removal of lung tissue. Procedures performed include lobectomy (removal of one lobe), bilobectomy (two lobes) or pneumonectomy (removal of a whole lung). Smaller resections include wedge excision or segmentectomy (part of a lobe).

      The role of sub lobar resection (extended wedge resection) continues to be debated for the primary management of NSCLC. Although overall survival appears to be equivalent to that of lobectomy resection, the local recurrence rate has been documented to be over three times more common (19% compared to 5%). Accordingly, sub lobar resection has historically been used as a "compromise resection" approach for the management of small (less than 3 centimeters diameter) stage I peripheral NSCLC identified in patients with impaired cardiopulmonary reserve. Recent reports of the use of intraoperative radioactive iodine brachytherapy implants at the margins of sublobar resection suggest that local recurrence can be reduced to that of lobectomy when this is used as a surgical adjunct to sublobar resection.

      The role of anatomic segmentectomy (a larger sublobar resection) with complete lymph node staging has also been found to have potential survival benefits similar to lobectomy. Such resections should be limited to peripheral small (less than 2 cm diameter) stage I NSCLC where a margin of resection equivalent to the diameter of the tumor can be achieved.

      Five-year prognosis is often as good as 70% following complete resection of limited (lesions limited to the lung tissue without lymph node spread - stage I) disease.

      After surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy may be recommended if lymph nodes within the lung tissues resected (stage II) or the mediastinum (lymph nodes in the peri-tracheal region, stage III) are found to be positive for cancer spread. Survival may be improved by up to 15% above patients receiving only surgical resection in these circumstances. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with large stage I NSCLC (tumor diameter greater than 3 cm without lymph node involvement, stage IB) remains controversial.

      The NCI Canada study JBR.10 treated patients with stage IB to IIB NSCLC with vinorelbine and cisplatin chemotherapy and showed a significant survival benefit of 15% over 5 years. However subgroup analysis of patients in stage IB showed that chemotherapy did not result in any survival gain in them. Similarly, while the Italian ANITA study showed a survival benefit of 8% over 5 years with vinorelbine and cisplatin chemotherapy in stages 1B to 3A patients, subgroup analysis also showed no benefit in the IB stage.

      The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) study was a randomized study which examined the use of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with stage 1B disease. Unfortunately, although initial results in 2004 were encouraging, an update at the recent American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting (June 2006) reported that the findings are now negative with no survival advantage with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with this stage of disease. However, exploratory analysis of patients in the CALGB study suggested that perhaps those with tumors equal or greater than 4 cm in size may still benefit.

      At present, it is standard practice to offer patients with resected stage II-IIIA NSCLC adjuvant third generation platinum-based chemotherapy (e.g. cisplatin and vinorelbine). Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage 1B remains controversial as clinical trials have not clearly demonstrated a survival benefit.

      [edit] Chemotherapy
      Small-cell lung cancer is treated primarily with chemotherapy, as surgery has no demonstrable influence on survival. Primary chemotherapy is also given in metastatic NSCLC.

      The combination regimen depends on the tumour type:

      NSCLC: cisplatin or carboplatin, in combination with gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, etoposide or vinorelbine. In metastatic lung cancer, the addition of bevacizumab when added to carboplatin and paclitaxel was found to improve survival (though in this study, patients with squamous cell lung cancer were excluded because of problems with pulmonary hemorrhage in this group in the past).
      SCLC: cisplatin or carboplatin, in combination etoposide or ifosfamide; combinations with gemcitabine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, topotecan and irinotecan are being studied.

      [edit] Targeted therapy
      In recent years, various molecular targeted therapies have been developed for the treatment of advanced lung cancer. Gefitinib (Iressa) is one such drug, which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which is expressed in many cases of NSCLC. However despite an exciting start it was not shown to increase survival, although females, Asians, non-smokers and those with the adenocarcinoma cell type appear to be deriving most benefit from gefitinib.

      A newer drug called erlotinib (Tarceva), another EGF-R inhibitor, has been shown to increase survival in lung cancer patients and has recently been approved by the FDA for second-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. [Similar to gefitinib, it appeared to work best in females, Asians, non-smokers and those with the adenocarcinoma cell type.]

      A number of targeted agents are at the early stages of clinical research, such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, the pre-apoptic inhibitor exisulind, proteasome inhibitors, bexarotene (Targretin) and vaccines[19]

      Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer is evolving.

      [edit] Radiotherapy
      Radiotherapy is often given together with chemotherapy, and may be used with curative intent in patients who are not eligible for surgery. A radiation dose of 40 or more Gy in many fractions is commonly used with curative intent in non-small cell lung cancer; typically in North America, the dose prescribed is 60 or 66 Gy in 30 to 33 fractions given once daily, 5 days a week, for 6 to 6½ weeks. For small cell lung cancer cases that are potentially curable, in addition to chemotherapy, chest radiation is often recommended. For these small cell lung cancer cases, chest radiation doses of 40 Gy or more in many fractions are commonly given; typically in North America, the dose prescribed is 45 to 50 Gy and can be given in either once daily treatments for 5 weeks or twice daily treatments for 3 weeks.

      For both non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer patients, radiation of disease in the chest to smaller doses (typically 20 Gy in 5 fractions) may be used for symptom control.

      [edit] Interventional radiology
      Radiofrequency ablation is increasing in popularity for this condition as it is nontoxic and causes very little pain. It seems especially effective when combined with chemotherapy as it catches the cells inside a tumor—the ones difficult to get with chemotherapy due to reduced blood supply to the inside of the tumor. It is done by inserting a small heat probe into the tumor to cook the tumor cells. The body then disposes of the cooked cells through its normal eliminative processes.

      [edit] Epidemiology

      Lung cancer distribution in the United States.The population segment most likely to develop lung cancer is the over-fifties who also have a history of smoking. Lung cancer is the second most commonly occurring form of cancer in most western countries, and it is the leading cancer-related cause of death for men and women. In the US, 175,000 new cases are expected in 2006:[20] 90,700 in men and 80,000 in women. Although the rate of men dying from lung cancer is declining in western countries, it is actually increasing for women due to the increased takeup of smoking by this group. Among lifetime non-smokers, men who have never smoked have higher age-standardized lung cancer death rates than women. Of the 80,000 women who are diagnosed with lung cancer in 2006, approximately 70,000 are expected to die from it.[21]

      Lung cancer was extremely rare prior to the advent of cigarette smoking. In 1878, malignant lung tumors made up only 1% of all cancers seen at autopsy; this had risen to 10-15% by the early 1900s[22]. Case reports in the medical literature numbered only 374 worldwide in 1912[23]. The British Doctors Study, published in the 1950s, first offered solid epidemiological evidence on the link between lung cancer and smoking.

      Not all cases of lung cancer are due to smoking, but the role of passive smoking is increasingly being recognised as a risk factor for lung cancer, leading to policy interventions to decrease undesired exposure of non-smokers to others' tobacco smoke.

      In the Second World and Third World, smoking-related lung cancer is rising rapidly in incidence. Countries such as China are expected to see a marked increase in lung cancer cases as smoking is exceedingly common and other causes of death (such as infections) are becoming less common, revealing an "iceberg" of pulmonary neoplasms. Cheap tobacco products and heavy advertising are seen by health campaigners as a major problem in these countries.

      [edit] Prevention

      [edit] Primary prevention
      Prevention is the most cost-effective means of fighting lung cancer on the national and global scales. While in most countries industrial and domestic carcinogens have been identified and banned, tobacco smoking is still widespread. Eliminating tobacco smoking is a primary goal in the fight to prevent lung cancer, and smoking cessation is the most important preventative tool in this process.

      Policy interventions to decrease passive smoking (e.g. in restaurants and workplaces) have become more common in various Western countries, with California taking a lead in banning smoking in public establishments in 1998, Ireland playing a similar role in Europe in 2004, followed by Italy and Norway in 2005 and Scotland as well as several others in 2006. New Zealand has also recently banned smoking in public places. (See Smoking ban).

      Only the Asian state of Bhutan has a complete smoking ban (since 2005). In many countries pressure groups are campaigning for similar bans. Arguments cited against such bans is criminalisation of smoking, increased risk of smuggling and the risk that such a ban cannot be enforced.

      [edit] Screening and secondary prevention
      Regular chest radiography and sputum examination programs were not effective in reducing mortality from lung cancer.[24] Earlier studies (Mayo Lung Project and Czechoslovakia lung cancer screening study, combining over 17,000 smokers) showed earlier detection of lung cancer was possible but mortality was not improved. Simply detecting a tumor at an earlier stage may not necessarily yield improved mortality. For example, plain radiography resulted in increased time from diagnosis of cancer until death and those cancers being detected by screening tended to be earlier stages. However, these patients continued to die at the same rate as those who are not screened. At present, no professional or specialty organization advocates screening for lung cancer outside of clinical trials.

      A computed tomography (CT) scan can uncover tumors not yet visible on an X-ray. CT scanning is now being actively evaluated as a screening tool for lung cancer in high risk patients, and it is showing promising results. The USA-based National Cancer Institute is currently completing a randomized trial comparing CT scans with chest radiographs. Several single-institution trials are ongoing around the world. The International Early Lung Cancer Action Project published the results of CT screening on over 31,000 high-risk patients in late 2006 in the New England Journal of Medicine.[25] In this study 85% of the 484 detected lung cancers were stage I and thus highly treatable. Mathematically these stage I patients would have an expected 10-year survival of 88%. However, there was no randomization of patients (all received CT scans and there was no comparison group receiving only x-rays) and the patients were not actually followed out to 10 years post detection (the median followup was 40 months). Other studies are underway in this area to see if decreased long-term mortality can be directly observed from CT screening.

      It should be noted that screening studies have only been done in high risk populations, such as smokers and workers with occupational exposure to certain substances. This is important when one considers that repeated radiation exposure from screening could actually induce carcinogenesis in a small percentage of screened subjects, so this risk should be mitigated by a (relatively) high prevalence of lung cancer in the population being screened.

  40. QUESTION:
    BONE PAIN? 100 things that causes it?
    BONE PAIN? 100 things that causes it?
    I need 100 things that can cause bone pain. I already have some that i remember: osteoporosis, fracture, arthritis, and cancer (but I need to know what kind of cancer causes it). 10points to the best answer. Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      OK - Good Question - I saw a lot of this in my medical oncology practice.
      - Any metastatic cancer (spread to) bone
      The most common ones I saw were breast cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer.
      Head and Neck cancers can involve bone. These are usually squamous cell Ca's.
      - Primary Cancers of the bone such as osterosarcoma
      - Ewings Sarcoma
      - Malignancies of the bone marrow such a multiple myeloma, some leukemias and lymphomas including Hodgkin's disease, and some myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders
      - Malignant melanomas commonly go to bone while usually gastrointestinal cancers do not - though pancreatic cancer can cause bone pain usually in the spine
      - Kidney cancers certainly can go to bone
      - Some soft tissue sarcomas can involve the bone and cause pain.
      - Uterine cancer, Ovarian cancers, Cervical cancers
      - Testicular cancers : Various types
      - Non-melanoma skin cancers can involve underlying bone
      - Anal Cancers : Squamous and embryonal cell
      - Rectal cancers : Squamous cell and adenocarcinomas
      If you want to stretch the cancer list you could split up the types of each cancer. For lung cancers that spread to bone you could list squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and oat cell carcinoma - all originating in the lung.
      You can subtype various cancers on and on - the list of various lymphoma subtypes is extensive, but this may be more than you really want.
      For non-cancer causes :
      Don't forget "growth pains" which can be bone pain in adolescents in their growth spurt.
      And "Shin splints" which might be related to some microvascular insufficiency or unknown causes.
      Sickle Cell anemia commonly causes severe bone pains
      Aching bones are a common complaint with influenza and other systemic infectious diseases.
      Dengue fever is also known as "Break Bone Fever" - a viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes. (See reference below if interested)
      Also infection of the bone itself - osteomyelitis
      Look into infectious diseases and you will fill you list quickly.
      Just about any systemic infection can cause bone pain.
      Malaria, tuberculosis . . . the list is huge.

  41. QUESTION:
    Metastatic adenocarcinoma from Lungs-treatment ?
    My Close & dear relative has cancer...47years/Male... In Liver biopsy report it is stated that ' Metastatic adenocarcinoma ' & then Doctor took MRI scan & said primary cancer is in LEFT LUNG,which spread to Liver,Spleen,Cervical nodes & lymphatic...something ( I dont know the term).The Doctor said the survival time will be 5months if chemotherapy is taken or else it will b only 3 months...
    1) Chemotherapy will be Painful & Suffering ?
    2) Does Ayurvedic & Homeopathy helps at this stage ?
    3) Is Palliative care - the only option :(
    4) Palliative care + Ayurvedic or Homeopathy is Helpful ?
    5) Is there any medicines to lessen the Pain suffered by patient ( Doctor has prescribed two tablets but its moderate only & I can't ask him bcos doctor is 500kms away)
    6) Please check this article in below link & say SHALL HE TAKE ASPIRIN as said in the newspaper
    http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-sundaymagazine/article3614823.ece

    Please answer all the questions, I m confused,Help Me & Doctors answers are most welcome...Thanks in advance...

    • ANSWER:
      1. Aspirin to be taken under strict medical supervision. Lest, the symptoms may get aggravated.
      2. One such case, we came across from Hyderabad. The patient who was declared to survive for a month on 01102011 is still surviving comfortably. Details follow---------------
      3. The symptoms cited---------an offshoot of blocked energy + accumulated toxins Brain, Spinal cord, liver, lungs, Thyroid & Parathyroid, lymphatic system, Spleen, hormonal imbalance with a displaced solar plexus.

      4. TARGET THERAPY* It is the God-given therapy communicated to the mankind through THE RIGVEDA, one of the Hindu scriptures.
      Target Therapy---Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      Latest recorded documentation on cure for ‘breast cancer’-live case.
      •1. A diabetic patient aged 62 years from Hyderabad. Mastectomy of left breast in 2005 and recurrence of tumors in the left chest in 2011. Metastases/Secondaries spread to sternum and complained of breathing problems, constipation, insomnia, severe pain edema in the left chest. Chemotherapy is fraught with severe reactions & doctors refused to treat her due to advancing age & extremely weak constitution. On 01102011 Doctors @ Image Hospitals, Hyderabad predicted, in the light of prognosis, metastases, etc., that she would live for a month. Patient shifted to Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies on 17102011. Feed back Dated 01012012-sleeping well, edema and pain subsided substantially and no problem of breathing on passing very stinking stools on 15122011. Again the patient approached us for further treatment and the domiciliary treatment is commenced on 25042012 and she is getting on well. Her son made a phone on 12052012 and told that her appetite improved, constipation issues solved, sleeping well. Excepting that she has severe sciatica pain, for which we suggested them to contact an Acupuncturist @ Hyderabad.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •Impression of CT Scanning- Dated: 22092011 [before commencement of target therapy—Known case of carcinoma of left breast, post modified radical mastectomy, multiple lung secondaries, chest wall metastases.
      •CT Scanning Dated 21062012 [after 2 sets/bouts of target therapy] Bilateral pulmonary sternal metastases, Bilateral plural effusion. Target therapy for another 45 days continues.
      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      •Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.
      Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

  42. QUESTION:
    hi, i have esophagus cancer, i'm male 27 years old, type adenocarcinoma and at stage 1?
    i will go through surgery soon, what are the chances of cure, and will be there recurrence, and is it rare for me to have this disease at this early age, the cancer extend until the submucosa but didn't invade the lymph nodes..... anyone can sedate and help me..... thanks

    • ANSWER:
      Esophageal adenocarcinoma isn't a common disease to start with, and it's typically a disease of people in or beyond the 5th decade of life, so for you to have this at age 27 is a RARE occurence indeed.

      Worldwide, the most common form of esophageal cancer is squamous type. This is most prevelent in asia, and specifically in Japan. Because esophageal and gastric cancers are more common in the asian nations, there are actually efforts to develop effective screening programs there (a screening program is where people without signs of disease undergo a test as part of routine health checkups). In the US, there are about 20,000-ish cases of esophageal cancer every year (the number is growing - it's a cancer on the rise) and that's a fairly rare cancer compared to colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer or lung cancer in smokers. There are not enough cases to justify checking people for esophagus cancer who have no signs. Of course, for colon cancer, the recommendation is that people over 50 get screened with periodic colonoscopy. Women over 40 should undergo routine yearly screening for breast cancer with mammograms and exams, prostate exams should be performed for men over 50, and smokers should get a yearly chest X-ray. These are screening programs that make sense in the United States.

      Adenocarcinoma in the esophagus is typically a result of chronic gastro-esophageal reflux (heartburn). The normally abrasion resistant squamous cell lining of the esophagus is exposed to chronic stomach acid, and it morphs into a completely different kind of lining which secretes mucus (it becomes intestinal-type mucosa) and becomes susceptible to precancerous changes. About 1 in 100 people with bad reflux get the changes that are like this (called "Barrett's esophagus") and about 1 in 100 Barrett's will turn into adenocarcinoma.

      You say you have stage 1 disease, but you are not yet through surgery. Staging done prior to having a surgical specimen is at best an estimation! Pathologic staging is performed after evaluation of the surgical specimen of esophagus and lymph nodes.

      I'm not going to lie to you. Esophagus cancer is BAD. Catching it in early phase is RARE. Most often, if patients present with difficulty swallowing and it gets traced back to a tumor in the esophagus, the fact of the matter is that there are focuses of disease that have already spread. For people who have only the first hints of changes toward cancer on random biopsy (called high grade dysplasia) actually over 6 percent not only have invasive cancer, but lymph node metastases at esophagectomy. This is an AGGRESSIVE cancer and it's frequently already spreading at the time of discovery. You won't really know what the reality of the extent of disease is until after surgery.

      Dark overtones aside, however, the reason that esophagus cancer is feared by surgeons is more often that it requires major surgery in older sicker patients. You are NOT one of these. Therefore you stand to be one of the people who is ready to be a rapid recovery and a complete cure. At least you have that going for you.

      If someone is suggesting esophagectomy, then you should probably find out how often and how many of these operations that your surgeon has done. Studies have been done that clearly show better outcomes in centers of "high volume" for this operation. Interestingly, the definition of "high volume" is rediculously low, because most surgeons just don't do this operation that often. I myself do it very rarely indeed, and I have special interest in esophageal surgery! (however, for other reasons besides cancer).

      There are centers of excellence in a number of places around the country for this type of thing. If I was to have a diagnosis such as yours or if I were to have a family member who did, then I'd send them to Los Angeles to be operated on by Tom DeMeester and his group at USC. There are several leaders in the field of esophageal surgery - I encourage you to find one!.

      I wish you the best of outcomes and the speediest of recoveries.

  43. QUESTION:
    10points! Are the lungs, the uterus, the bladder, etc. just infoldings?
    I've just seen this

    "A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Thus, malignant tumors made of cancerous bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, vascular, or hematopoietic tissues are, by definition, considered sarcomas.
    This is in contrast to a malignant tumor originating from epithelial cells, which are termed carcinoma. Sarcomas are quite rare. Common malignancies, such as breast, colon, and lung cancer, are almost always carcinoma."

    I wonder, are breasts, lungs, the uterus and the bladder, made of epitelial tissue?
    Also, is Epitelial Tissue the same thing as Ectodem? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blastula.png

    • ANSWER:
      In general, there are epithelial tissues deriving from all of the embryological germ layers:

      from ectoderm (e.g., the epidermis);

      from endoderm (e.g., the lining of the gastrointestinal tract);

      from mesoderm (e.g., the inner linings of body cavities).

      However, it is important to note that pathologists do not consider endothelium and mesothelium (both derived from mesoderm) to be true epithelium. This is because such tissues present very different pathology. For that reason, pathologists label cancers in endothelium and mesothelium sarcomas, whereas true epithelial cancers are called carcinomas. Also, the filaments that support these mesoderm-derived tissues are very distinct. Outside of the field of pathology, it is, in general, accepted that the epithelium arises from all three germ layers

      Breasts:.

      The breast contains many individual tissue types which all work together:

      * Nipple is the center point of the breast and the structure which provides access to milk for a nursing newborn, as well as sexual gratification from manual stimulation.

      * Areola is the pigmented skin surrounding the nipple.

      * Mammary Glands produce and distribute milk to the nipple.

      * Cooper’s Ligaments help to define breast shape and structure.

      * Fatty tissue accounts for breast size and mass.

      * Connective Tissue maintains breast structure and placement.

      * Nerve Tissue provides sensory and motor response from the breast and especially the highly sensitive nipple.

      * Vascular Tissue provides blood supply and drainage to the various breast structures.

      Lungs: principally epithelial (lining air spaces) and connective tissues (providing structure) with small amounts of smooth muscle (bronchiolar) and neural tissue
      .

      Uterus: Most endometrial cancers are carcinomas (usually adenocarcinomas), meaning that they originate from the single layer of epithelial cells that line the endometrium and form the endometrial glands. There are many microscopic subtypes of endometrial carcinoma, including the common endometrioid type, in which the cancer cells grow in patterns reminiscent of normal endometrium, and the far more aggressive papillary serous carcinoma and clear cell endometrial carcinomas. Some authorities have proposed that endometrial carcinomas be classified into two pathogenetic groups.

      In contrast to endometrial carcinomas, the uncommon endometrial stromal sarcomas are cancers that originate in the non-glandular connective tissue of the endometrium. Uterine carcinosarcoma, formerly called Malignant mixed müllerian tumor, is a rare uterine cancer that contains cancerous cells of both glandular and sarcomatous appearance - in this case, the cell of origin is unknown.

      Bladder:
      Serosal Layer: The bladder consists of four structurally distinct tissue layers. The outermost of these, known as the serosal or tunica seros is derived from the peritoneum and covers only the upper and lateral surfaces of the bladder.

      Detrusor Muscle: Adjacent to and inward of the serosa layers is the muscle layer of the bladder, also known as the tunica muscularis and more commonly as the detrusor muscle, a name derived from the Latin detrudere meaning "to thrust out" and related to the contractile function of this muscle in expelling urine from the bladder.

      Submucosal Layer: Internally adjacent to the tunica muscularis is the third layer of the bladder tissue, the submucosal layer, which is also known as the lamina propria. This layer consists of blood and lympathic vessels and nerves within a stroma of fibrous connective that join the tunica muscularis to the innermost of the bladder tissue layers, the tunica mucosa or mucosal layer.

      Mucosal Layer: The mucosal layer is the innermost tissue of the bladder. Also known as the urothelium because it consists of the transitional epithelial cells that also line the ureters and urethra, the mucosa of the bladder is continuous with the lining of the tubular structures. The epithelial tissue layer of the bladder consists of from five to seven strata of transitional epithelial cells, also called urothelial cells. The deepest of these, made up of the mucosa, of which the uppermost lines the inner surface of the bladder and comes into contact with the urine. The uppermost cells of the urothelium at the inner surface of the bladder, are knows as umbrella cells. These cell, which extend over smaller cells in the new lower layer epithelium, are impermeable, resistant to infection and to the adherence of many foreign substances and thus provide protection for underlying cells of the urothelium, the umbrella cells at the surface of this tissue layer secrete a protective substance known as mucin, which protects the underlying bladder cell from irritating substances present in urine.

  44. QUESTION:
    My most recent CEA level was 2.6?
    I was diagnosed with colon cancer, stage IIIb (T3, N1 out of 13, M0). I had a resection an started FOLFOX (12 rounds) a month later. My CEA was never tested before surgery but a month after was 3.2. Two weeks later it was 2.6. Is this normal? I smoked for decades but quit 3 years ago.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, it is normal. Congratulations. God bless U.

      How? Details follow--------------------

      Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein, which is present in normal mucosal cells but increased amounts are associated with adenocarcinoma, especially colorectal cancer. CEA therefore has a role as a tumour marker. Levels exceeding 10 μg/L are rarely due to benign disease.1

      Less than 25% of patients with disease confined to the colon have an elevated CEA level. Sensitivity increases with advancing tumour stage. However, poorly differentiated tumours are less likely to produce CEA.1
      CEA values are increased in approximately 50% of patients with lymph node disease. Values are elevated in 75% of patients with distant metastasis.1
      CEA levels are useful in assessing prognosis (with other factors), detecting recurrence (especially for disease that cannot be evaluated by other means) and monitoring treatment in patients with colorectal cancer. CEA is particularly recommended for postoperative follow-up of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer if further surgery or chemotherapy is an option.2

      Conditions which may have elevated CEA3
      Colorectal cancer; tumours on the right side of the colon tend to produce higher CEA levels than tumours on the left side.
      Breast cancer.4
      Lung cancer.5
      Gastric cancer, oesophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer.
      Mesothelioma.
      Skeletal metastases.
      Non-malignant liver disease, including cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis.6
      Chronic kidney disease.
      Pancreatic disease.7
      Inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome.
      Respiratory diseases, e.g. pleural inflammation, pneumonia.
      Smoking.
      Ageing.8
      Atherosclerosis.8
      Normal range
      Studies of patients with colorectal tumours suggest that the CEA level deemed to be normal is 2.5 μg/L or less.3 This level can double in smokers.1

  45. QUESTION:
    I want to ask one more question about bladder cancer. Any doctors or nurses or any medical poeple on here now?
    I am almost 39 and female and have bladder cancer. I have very high epithial cells in my urine 100 percent of the time and no infection as infections have been ruled out. So what I want to know is do high epithital cells cause tumours in the body anywhere:? becasue I have a large tumou in in my right leg the size of a golf ball and is hard and at times is painfull. I also have a tumour in my left lypm node in my right groin too. I go back to the doctor and the hospital the specialits who only comes in once per week to get my prognosis. I have never smoked in my life, and for most of my life I have been very fit and healthy. So what I need to know is can white cells which are epithital cells that are very high like mine casue tumours anywhere in the body? My mother who is an RN said tonight that they can. I do not get much blood in the urine now like i have for 12 months of and on seen and unseen but lots of white epithital cells in the urine and on the cytoscopy. The hospital rang me
    on Monday this week and wants me to come in next week to dicuss the prognisis of my cancer. anyway please help me if you can and please tell me if the cancer has spread to other organs will the chemo be less effective. I have never had chemo before
    I have only found out about this when the hosptial called 2 days ago
    They will be soon. Next week I will be going to see me about that. The blood in the urine has stoped for now. But I may have chemo. The tumours are starting to pop up in differnet parts of the body and I never expected that

    • ANSWER:
      First, of all; my heart goes out to your misfortune of having this treacherous disease of bladder cancer.at a very young age. Bladder cancers are rare in people younger than 40 yrs.

      In a healthy female; the presence of epithelial cells which comes from the bladder lining-( sloughing off) in the urine is usually insignificant and do not cause the metastasis. Your bladder cancer might be a a tumor categorized as low-stage (superficial) originating in the transitional epithelial cells (called transitional cell carcinoma; TCC. or even SCC.

      When cancer occurs in the bladder, it usually begins growing within the bladder's inner lining, which is composed of specialized expanding and deflating cells known as transitional cells. From here, the cancer may spread deeper into the lining, extend into the bladder's muscular wall, and eventually invade nearby reproductive organs, abdominal tissues, the pelvis (hip bones), and lymph nodes. Although most bladder cancers are slow-growing, once they have spread to the bladder's muscular tissue, they often metastasize to sites such as the lungs, liver, bone, or lymph nodes.

      If the tumor has spread outside of the bladder to surrounding tissues, the patient may experience pelvic pain. In addition, metastases from a bladder cancer may cause secondary symptoms, such as bone pain at the site of the new cancer or leg edema (swelling) due to involvement of the lymph nodes.

      I hope you'll find the sites below useful:

      http://www.drrajmd.com/conditions/bladder/bladdercancer/bladdercancer.htm#UrinalysisCulture

      http://www.drrajmd.com/conditions/bladder/bladdercancer/bladdercancer.htm

      For the staging of Bladder Cancer :

      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/bladder/patient/allpages/print#Section_109

      http://www.oncologychannel.com/bladdercancer/

      Metastatic adenocarcinoma is a rare bladder tumor caused by cancer cells that have broken off from a primary cancer somewhere else in the body. The most likely primary cancer sites are the rectum (lower large intestine), stomach, endometrium (lining of the womb), breast, prostate, lung, and ovary. Before metastatic adenocarcinoma is treated, the patient must be evaluated to detect the primary cancer and any other metastatic tumors that may be present.

      So I strongly suggest to you to ask your oncologist to try to do a biopsy of the tumor in the right leg to see if it's the same type of cancer and try to determine the primary site before any chemotherapy. Chemotherapy will destroy any floating cancer cells esp if it has metastasize to the lymphatic system as in your case.

      To answer your additional details. You should immediately ask the oncologist to commence chemotherapy as the cancer is metastasizing fast.Stage IV. Hematuria and pains are strong symptom of bladder. cancer You should ask for a total body CAT SCAN. as I strongly suspect that your bladder cancer is just a secondary site.

  46. QUESTION:
    what causes esophaguel cancer?
    what causes esophaguel cancercould u get it at 18 ifu dont smokehow couldu tellif u have it ido have diffuclty swallowing sometimes

    • ANSWER:
      Although the esophagus is essentially a hollow tube, its walls are composed of a number of highly specialized layers, including an inner lining made up of thin, flat cells (squamous cells), a layer below the inner lining (submucosa) that contains mucus-secreting glands, and a thick band of muscle tissue.

      When you eat or drink, a muscle in the upper part of your esophagus (upper esophageal sphincter) relaxes, allowing food and liquid to enter. Smooth muscles in the esophagus wall then move the food along in a series of rhythmic contractions — a process called peristalsis.

      Another ring of muscle, the lower esophageal sphincter, sits at the junction where your esophagus and stomach connect. It opens to allow food into your stomach and then clamps shut so that corrosive stomach acids and digestive enzymes don't back up into the esophagus.

      Cancer can occur almost anywhere along the length of the esophagus and is classified according to the types of cells in which it originates:

      Squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma. The most common esophageal cancer in black Americans and the most prevalent esophageal cancer worldwide, squamous cell carcinoma develops in the flat squamous cells that line the esophagus.
      Adenocarcinoma. This arises in the glandular tissue in the lower part of the esophagus nearest the stomach. In the United States, adenocarcinoma is more common in whites than in blacks. During the past two decades, this type of cancer has increased by 50 percent in black Americans and 450 percent in white Americans.
      Others. Although squamous cell and adenocarcinoma are the primary types of esophageal cancer, other, rare forms of the disease sometimes occur. These include sarcoma, lymphoma, small cell carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma. In addition, cancer that starts in the breast or lung can spread (metastasize) through the bloodstream or lymph system to the esophagus.
      Contributing factors
      Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way. This process is controlled by DNA — the genetic material that contains the instructions for every chemical process in your body. When DNA is damaged, changes occur in these instructions. One result is that cells may begin to grow out of control and eventually form a tumor — a mass of malignant cells.

      Although researchers don't know all the causes of esophageal cancer, they have identified several factors that can damage DNA in your esophagus. These factors include:

      Heavy alcohol consumption. In Western nations, many of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas result from chronic alcohol abuse. Long-term heavy drinking irritates the lining of the esophagus, leading to inflammation that eventually may cause malignant changes in the cells.
      Tobacco use. Using tobacco in any form, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes and chewing tobacco, increases your likelihood of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The risk increases with long-term use and rises even more for people who both smoke and drink.
      Chronic acid reflux. Sometimes the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes abnormally or weakens, allowing caustic stomach acids to back up into your esophagus (esophageal reflux). The result is heartburn — a burning chest discomfort that in severe cases may mimic the symptoms of a heart attack.

      Occasional heartburn usually isn't serious, but chronic acid reflux can lead to Barrett's esophagus, a condition in which cells similar to your stomach's glandular cells develop in the lower esophagus. These new cells are resistant to stomach acid, but they also have a high potential for malignancy. Gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of about one-third of esophageal cancers. Smoking, obesity and a high-sodium diet put you at increased risk of reflux problems.

      Diet. Eating a diet low in fruits and vegetables appears to contribute to esophageal cancer. Especially implicated are diets lacking in vitamins A, C and B-1 (riboflavin). People with low levels of the mineral selenium have a higher risk of esophageal cancer than do people with normal blood-selenium levels. Because high doses of selenium can be toxic, experts recommend getting selenium from foods such as fish, whole-grain bread, Brazil nuts and walnuts rather than from supplements.
      Obesity. Weighing significantly more than your ideal weight — having a body mass index greater than 25 — has been linked to an increased risk of adenocarcinoma.
      Sometimes esophageal cancer is associated with certain rare medical conditions, including:

      Achalasia. In this disorder, food collects at the bottom of the esophagus, both because the esophagus lacks normal peristalsis to move food along and because the lower esophageal sphincter doesn't relax normally. For reasons that aren't clear, having achalasia seems to increase your risk of esophageal cancer.
      Esophageal webs. These thin protrusions of tissue can appear anywhere in your esophagus. Some webs cause no symptoms, but others can make swallowing difficult. When other

  47. QUESTION:
    what is adeno cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer that begins in the epithelial cells, which line certain internal organs and have glandular (secretory) properties. Some types of adenocarcinomas include cancers of the breast, thyroid, colon, stomach, pancreas, and prostate, as well as certain types of lung cancer

      Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/adenocarcinoma#ixzz1jOC5igJK

  48. QUESTION:
    adenocarcinoma?

    • ANSWER:
      Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. To be classified as adenocarcinoma, the cells don't necessarily need to be part of a gland, as long as they have secretory properties. This form of carcinoma can occur in some higher mammals, including humans.

      It can first present as an adenoma (a glandular tumor that is benign.)

      It is frequently associated with cancers such as:

      breast cancer
      colon cancer
      lung cancer
      prostate cancer
      stomach cancer
      pancreatic cancer (75-96% are Ductal cell adenocarcinoma)
      cervical cancer

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenocarcinoma

  49. QUESTION:
    Please explain "invasive Adenocarcinoma" and it's treatment.Thank you.?
    Section shows fragments of neoplastic tissue characterized by infiltration glands & papilary structures formed by neoplastic epithelial cells in a desmoplastic stroma. Tumoral cells have high N/C ratio hyperchromatic, pleomorphic nuclei & small amounts of ecsinophilie cytoplasm. Separate fragments of necrotic ulcerated tissue and congested edematous gastric mucosa are seen.

    • ANSWER:
      Adenocarcinoma means a cancer that has started or grown in a gland. It is frequently associated with breast, lung, stomach, prostate, bowel or pancreatic cancers. Invasive means it has started to invade surrounding healthy tissue or has the tendency to do so. Like any cancer, it's bad news.

  50. QUESTION:
    what is adenocarcinoma?

    • ANSWER:
      ADENOCARCINOMA is a Cancer that begins in the epithelial cells, which line certain internal organs and have glandular (secretory) properties. Some types of adenocarcinomas include cancers of the breast, thyroid, colon, stomach, pancreas, and prostate, as well as certain types of lung cancer.-

      Although commonly associated with lung cancer, adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in cells lining glandular types of internal organs. Another type of adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, accounts for only 10-15% of all adenocarcinomas and is particular to aggressive carcinomas that are comprised of at least sixty percent mucus.-

adenocarcinoma lung breast cancer